Y = expm(X)
Y = expm(X) computes the
matrix exponential of
Although it is not computed this way, if
a full set of eigenvectors
V with corresponding
[V,D] = EIG(X) and EXPM(X) = V*diag(exp(diag(D)))/V
exp for the element-by-element
This example computes and compares the matrix exponential of
the exponential of
A = [1 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 -1 ]; expm(A) ans = 2.7183 1.7183 1.0862 0 1.0000 1.2642 0 0 0.3679 exp(A) ans = 2.7183 2.7183 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 7.3891 1.0000 1.0000 0.3679
Notice that the diagonal elements of the two results are equal. This would be true for any triangular matrix. But the off-diagonal elements, including those below the diagonal, are different.
expm uses the Padé approximation with
scaling and squaring. See reference , below.
 Golub, G. H. and C. F. Van Loan, Matrix Computation, p. 384, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1983.
 Moler, C. B. and C. F. Van Loan, "Nineteen Dubious Ways to Compute the Exponential of a Matrix," SIAM Review 20, 1978, pp. 801–836. Reprinted and updated as "Nineteen Dubious Ways to Compute the Exponential of a Matrix, Twenty-Five Years Later," SIAM Review 45, 2003, pp. 3–49.
 Higham, N. J., "The Scaling and Squaring Method for the Matrix Exponential Revisited," SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl., 26(4) (2005), pp. 1179–1193.