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Camera graphics is based on a group of axes properties that control the position and orientation
of the camera. In general, the camera commands, such as `campos`

, `camtarget`

,
and `camup`

, make it unnecessary
to access these properties directly.

Property | Description |
---|---|

`CameraPosition` | Specifies the location of the viewpoint in axes units. |

`CameraPositionMode` | In |

`CameraTarget` | Specifies the location in the axes pointed to by the
camera. Together with the |

`CameraTargetMode` | In |

`CameraUpVector` | The rotation of the camera around the viewing axis is defined by a vector indicating the direction taken as up. |

`CameraUpVectorMode` | In |

`CameraViewAngle` | Specifies the field of view of the "lens." If you specify a value for CameraViewAngle, MATLAB does not stretch-the axes to fit the figure. |

`CameraViewAngleMode` | In Setting |

`Projection` | Selects either an orthographic or perspective projection. |

When all the camera mode properties are set to `auto`

(the
default), MATLAB automatically controls the view, selecting appropriate
values based on the assumption that you want the scene to fill the
position rectangle (which is defined by the width and height components
of the axes `Position`

property).

By default, MATLAB

Sets the

`CameraPosition`

so the orientation of the scene is the standard MATLAB 2-D or 3-D view (see the`view`

command)Sets the

`CameraUpVector`

so the*y*-direction is up for 2-D views and the*z*-direction is up for 3-D viewsSets the

`CameraViewAngle`

to the minimum angle that makes the scene fill the position rectangle (the rectangle defined by the axes`Position`

property)

This default behavior generally produces desirable results. However, you can change these properties to produce useful effects.

You can move the camera anywhere in the 3-D space defined by the axes. The camera continues to point towards the target regardless of its position. When the camera moves, MATLAB varies the camera view angle to ensure the scene fills the position rectangle.

You can create a fly-by effect by moving the camera
through the scene. To do this, continually change `CameraPosition`

property,
moving it toward the target. Because the camera is moving through
space, it turns as it moves past the camera target. Override the MATLAB automatic
resizing of the scene each time you move the camera by setting the `CameraViewAngleMode`

to `manual`

.

If you update the `CameraPosition`

and the `CameraTarget`

,
the effect is to pass through the scene while continually facing the
direction of movement.

If the `Projection`

is
set to `perspective`

, the amount of perspective distortion
increases as the camera gets closer to the target and decreases as
it gets farther away.

To move the camera along the viewing axis, you need to calculate
new coordinates for the `CameraPosition`

property.
This is accomplished by subtracting (to move closer to the target)
or adding (to move away from the target) some fraction of the total
distance between the camera position and the camera target.

The function `movecamera`

calculates a new `CameraPosition`

that
moves in on the scene if the argument `dist`

is positive
and moves out if `dist`

is negative.

function movecamera(dist) %dist in the range [-1 1] set(gca,'CameraViewAngleMode','manual') newcp = cpos - dist * (cpos - ctarg); set(gca,'CameraPosition',newcp) function out = cpos out = get(gca,'CameraPosition'); function out = ctarg out = get(gca,'CameraTarget');

Setting the `CameraViewAngleMode`

to `manual`

can
cause an abrupt change in the aspect ratio.

Adjusting the `CameraViewAngle`

property
makes the view of the scene larger or smaller. Larger angles cause
the view to encompass a larger area, thereby making the objects in
the scene appear smaller. Similarly, smaller angles make the objects
appear larger.

Changing `CameraViewAngle`

makes the scene
larger or smaller without affecting the position of the camera. This
is desirable if you want to zoom in without moving
the viewpoint past objects that will then no longer be in the scene
(as could happen if you changed the camera position). Also, changing
the `CameraViewAngle`

does
not affect the amount of perspective applied to the scene, as changing `CameraPosition`

does
when the figure `Projection`

property is set to `perspective`

.

You can use the `view`

command
to revolve the viewpoint about the *z*-axis by
varying the azimuth, and about the azimuth by varying the elevation.
This has the effect of moving the camera around the scene along the
surface of a sphere whose radius is the length of the viewing axis.
You could create the same effect by changing the `CameraPosition`

,
but doing so requires you to perform calculations that MATLAB performs
for you when you call `view`

.

For example,
the function `orbit`

moves the camera around the
scene.

function orbit(deg) [az, el] = view; rotvec = 0:deg/10:deg; for i = 1:length(rotvec) view([az+rotvec(i) el]) drawnow end

When `CameraViewAngleMode`

is `auto`

, MATLAB calculates
the `CameraViewAngle`

so that the scene is as large
as can fit in the axes position rectangle. This causes an apparent
size change during rotation of the scene. To prevent resizing during
rotation, you need to set the `CameraViewAngleMode`

to `manual`

(which
happens automatically when you specify a value for the `CameraViewAngle`

property). To do this in the `orbit`

function,
add the statement

set(gca,'CameraViewAngleMode','manual')

You can change the orientation of the scene by specifying the
direction defined as up. By default, MATLAB defines *up* as
the *y*-axis in 2-D views (the `CameraUpVector`

is ```
[0
1 0]
```

) and the *z*-axis for 3-D views
(the `CameraUpVector`

is `[0 0 1]`

).
However, you can specify up as any arbitrary direction.

The vector defined by the `CameraUpVector`

property
forms one axis of the camera's coordinate system. Internally, MATLAB determines
the actual orientation of the camera up vector by projecting the specified
vector onto the plane that is normal to the camera direction (i.e.,
the viewing axis). This simplifies the specification of the `CameraUpVector`

property,
because it need not lie in this plane.

In many cases, you might find it convenient
to visualize the desired up vector in terms of angles with respect
to the axes *x*-, *y*-, and *z*-axis.
You can then use *direction cosines* to convert from angles to vector components. For a unit vector, the expression
simplifies to

where the angles α, β, and γ are specified in degrees.

*XComponent = cos(α*(pi/180));*

*YComponent = cos(β*(pi/180));*

*ZComponent = cos(γ*(pi/180));*

Consult a mathematics book on vector analysis for a more detailed explanation of direction cosines.

To specify an up vector that makes an angle of 30° with
the *z*-axis and lies in the *y-z* plane,
use the expression

`upvec = [cos(90*(pi/180)),cos(60*(pi/180)),cos(30*(pi/180))];`

and then set the `CameraUpVector`

property.

```
set(gca,'CameraUpVector',upvec)
```

Drawing a sphere with this orientation produces

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