This example shows a receiver design that is able to recover 802.11™ OFDM non-HT based beacon packets transmitted over the air from commercial 802.11 hardware. Beacon packets are typically transmitted in non-HT format, even for HT [ 1 ] and/or VHT [ 2 ] capable hardware. Packet information such as SSID is printed to the command-line during recovery.
This example illustrates the use of WLAN Toolbox™ to recover real-world signals. It demonstrates a receiver design including synchronization, transmission configuration recovery, and payload decoding for non-HT packets. Although this example recovers beacon packets from a file containing a captured baseband waveform, it is designed to work with live signals.
The following steps happen sequentially to recover one non-HT packet:
Packet Detection: First a packet must be detected before any processing begins. This is accomplished by auto-correlating input symbols. Since the front of each 802.11 OFDM packet contains a repetitive structure called the L-STF, peaks will occur in the correlation when this packet is present. The L-STF field is then extracted and used for coarse frequency estimation.
Symbol Timing: Once a packet has been detected, future symbols will be collected and cross-correlated to locate the L-LTF. The resulting correlation peaks provide accurate timing for OFDM symbol timing. Once the full L-LTF is located, it is extracted and used for channel estimation, and fine frequency estimation.
L-SIG Decoding: The first OFDM symbol after the L-LTF is the L-SIG field. This field must be recovered and decoded to determine the modulation, code rate, and length of the following payload. The information is used to first capture the correct amount of data after the L-SIG for the complete payload and to decode that information.
Payload Decoding: All OFDM symbols after the L-SIG are buffered to a length determined by the L-SIG field. After all the symbols have been captured they are demodulated and decoded into their source bits. The source bits are then evaluated. This evaluation includes CRC checking, header and body extraction. If the packet is of subtype beacon, summary information such as SSID will be printed for the recovered packet.
Once a full packet is received or any failures occur during the processing chain, the receiver will return to packet detection to search for more packets. This process is repeated for the duration of the signal.
In this example an off-the-air capture is processed to recover beacon frames. A Wi-Fi® signal was captured using an RF interface with one receive antenna at a sampling rate of 20 Msps. The captured waveform is stored in a binary baseband file. The file was created using comm.BasebandFileWriter.
The captured waveform is processed in a streaming fashion. A block of samples is pulled in for processing in each iteration. As many valid packets are retrieved as possible. comm.BasebandFileReader is used to read blocks of samples from the binary baseband file.
% Create an object to stream the data from the file basebandReader = comm.BasebandFileReader( ... 'Filename', 'nonHTBeaconRxData.bb', ... 'SamplesPerFrame', 80); % Number of samples in 1 OFDM symbol at 20 MHz
The center frequency, sample rate and number of channels in the captured waveform are provided by the comm.BasebandFileReader object.
disp(['Center frequency: ' num2str(basebandReader.CenterFrequency/1e6) ' MHz']); disp(['Sample rate: ' num2str(basebandReader.SampleRate/1e6) ' Msps']); disp(['Number of receive antennas: ' num2str(basebandReader.NumChannels) newline]);
Center frequency: 5785 MHz Sample rate: 20 Msps Number of receive antennas: 1
A nonHTFrontEnd.m object performs front-end processing and L-SIG decoding. The object is configured with a channel bandwidth of 20 MHz to process non-HT packets. Only one receive antenna is supported.
rxFrontEnd = nonHTFrontEnd('ChannelBandwidth', 'CBW20');
A while loop is used to process blocks of samples and recover beacon packets until no more data is available in the baseband file. In each iteration of the loop a block of samples are read from the baseband file and are processed by
rxFrontEnd performs front-end processing and buffers samples until a packet has been detected and the payload received. When
payloadFull is true, the full payload has been buffered and
rxFrontEnd returns variables to allow the data within the packet to be recovered:
cfgNonHT is the recovered packet parameters from L-SIG
rxNonHTData is the time-domain non-HT data field signal
chanEst is the channel estimates obtained from the L-LTF
noiseVar is the fixed noise variance value
The packet payload bits are recovered from the non-HT data field samples using wlanNonHTDataRecover. The bits are then processed by nonHTBeaconRxMPDUDecode.m to determine whether the recovered packet is a valid beacon. If a valid beacon is detected nonHTBeaconRxOutputDisplay.m is used to display its properties.
% A recovery configuration object is used to specify zero-forcing % equalization for the data recovery cfgRec = wlanRecoveryConfig('EqualizationMethod', 'ZF'); % Symbol-by-symbol streaming process numValidPackets = 0; while ~isDone(basebandReader) % Pull in one OFDM symbol, i.e. 80 samples data = basebandReader(); % Perform front-end processing and payload buffering [payloadFull, cfgNonHT, rxNonHTData, chanEst, noiseVar] = ... rxFrontEnd(data); if payloadFull % Recover payload bits recBits = wlanNonHTDataRecover(rxNonHTData, chanEst, ... noiseVar, cfgNonHT, cfgRec); % Evaluate recovered bits [validBeacon, MPDU] = nonHTBeaconRxMPDUDecode(recBits); if validBeacon nonHTBeaconRxOutputDisplay(MPDU); % Display SSID numValidPackets = numValidPackets + 1; end end end disp([num2str(numValidPackets), ' Valid Beacon Packets Found']); release(basebandReader); release(rxFrontEnd);
SSID: MathWorks-SDR HT Capable ------------------------ SSID: MathWorks-SDR HT Capable ------------------------ SSID: MathWorks-SDR HT Capable ------------------------ 3 Valid Beacon Packets Found
See 802.11 OFDM Beacon Receiver with USRP Hardware for an example of processing live signals with USRP.
This example uses the following helper functions and objects:
IEEE® Std 802.11™-2012 IEEE Standard for Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems - Local and metropolitan area networks - Specific requirements - Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications.
IEEE Std 802.11ac™-2013 IEEE Standard for Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems - Local and metropolitan area networks - Specific requirements - Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications - Amendment 4: Enhancements for Very High Throughput for Operation in Bands below 6 GHz.