A shared library generated by MATLAB® Compiler SDK™ contains at least seven functions. There are three generated functions to manage library initialization and termination, one each for printed output and error messages, and two generated functions for each MATLAB file compiled into the library.
To generate the functions described in this section, first copy
triangle.c to create a C
triangle_legacy.cpp to create a C++
mwArray API shared library, or
triangle_generic.cpp to create a C++ MATLAB Data API shared library into your directory. The files are found in
Create the shared library as explained in Create C/C++ Shared Libraries from Command Line. Once your shared library is created,
execute the following
mbuild command that corresponds to your
development platform. This command uses your C/C++ compiler to compile the code and
link the driver code against the MATLAB generated C/C++ shared library.
For a C application, use
mwArray API application, use
For C++ MATLAB Data API application, use
.lib extension is for Windows®. On Mac, the file extension is
.dylib, and on
UNIX® it is
This command assumes that the C/C++ shared library, the driver code, and the corresponding header file are in the current working folder.
These commands create a main program named
triangle, and a
shared library named
libtriangle. The library exports a single
function that uses a simple iterative algorithm (contained in
sierpinski.m) to generate the fractal known as
Sierpinski's Triangle. The main program in
triangle_generic.cpp can optionally take a single
numeric argument, which, if present, specifies the number of points used to generate
the fractal. For example,
triangle 8000 generates a diagram with
In this example, MATLAB
Compiler SDK places all of the generated functions into the generated file
All programs that call MATLAB Compiler SDK generated shared libraries have roughly the same structure:
Declare variables and process/validate input arguments.
test for success. This function sets up the global MATLAB Runtime state and enables the construction of MATLAB Runtime instances.
Call, once for each library,
<libraryname>Initialize, to create the
MATLAB Runtime instance required by the library.
Invoke functions in the library, and process the results. (This is the main body of the program.)
Call, once for each library,
<libraryname>Terminate, to destroy the
associated MATLAB Runtime.
free resources associated with the global MATLAB Runtime state.
Clean up variables, close files, etc., and exit.
To see these steps in an actual example, review the main program in this example,
The library initialization and termination functions create and destroy, respectively, the MATLAB Runtime instance required by the shared library. You must call the initialization function before you invoke any of the other functions in the shared library, and you should call the termination function after you are finished making calls into the shared library (or you risk leaking memory).
There are two forms of the initialization function and one type of termination
function. The simpler of the two initialization functions takes no arguments; most
likely this is the version your application will call. In this example, this form of
the initialization function is called
This function creates a MATLAB Runtime instance using the default print and error handlers, and other information generated during the compilation process.
However, if you want more control over how printed output and error messages are handled, you may call the second form of the function, which takes two arguments.
bool libtriangleInitializeWithHandlers( mclOutputHandlerFcn error_handler, mclOutputHandlerFcn print_handler )
By calling this function, you can provide your own versions of the print and error handling routines called by the MATLAB Runtime. Each of these routines has the same signature (for complete details, see Print and Error Handling Functions). By overriding the defaults, you can control how output is displayed and, for example, whether or not it goes into a log file.
Before calling either form of the library initialization routine, you must
mclInitializeApplication to set up the global
MATLAB Runtime state. See Call a C Shared Library for more information.
Windows platforms, MATLAB
Compiler SDK generates an additional initialization function, the standard
Microsoft DLL initialization function
BOOL WINAPI DllMain(HINSTANCE hInstance, DWORD dwReason, void *pv)
DllMain performs a very important service; it
locates the directory in which the shared library is stored on disk. This
information is used to find the deployable archive, without which the application
will not run. If you modify the generated
recommended), make sure you preserve this part of its functionality.
Library termination is simple.
Call this function (once for each library) before calling
By default, MATLAB Compiler SDK generated applications and shared libraries send printed output to standard output and error messages to standard error. MATLAB Compiler SDK generates a default print handler and a default error handler that implement this policy. If you'd like to change this behavior, you must write your own error and print handlers and pass them in to the appropriate generated initialization function.
You may replace either, both, or neither of these two functions. The MATLAB Runtime sends all regular output through the print handler and all error output through the error handler. Therefore, if you redefine either of these functions, the MATLAB Runtime will use your version of the function for all the output that falls into class for which it invokes that handler.
The default print handler takes the following form.
static int mclDefaultPrintHandler(const char *s)
The implementation is straightforward; it takes a string, prints it on standard
output, and returns the number of characters printed. If you override or replace
this function, your version must also take a string and return the number of
characters “handled.” The MATLAB Runtime calls the print handler when an executing MATLAB file makes a request for printed output, e.g., via the MATLAB function
disp. The print handler does not terminate
the output with a carriage return or line feed.
The default error handler has the same form as the print handler.
static int mclDefaultErrorHandler(const char *s)
However, the default implementation of the print handler is slightly different. It sends the output to the standard error output stream, but if the string does not end with carriage return, the error handler adds one. If you replace the default error handler with one of your own, you should perform this check as well, or some of the error messages printed by the MATLAB Runtime will not be properly formatted.
The error handler, despite its name, does not handle the actual errors, but
rather the message produced after the errors have been caught and handled inside
the MATLAB Runtime. You cannot use this function to modify the error handling
behavior of the MATLAB Runtime -- use the
statements in your MATLAB files if you want to control how a MATLAB
Compiler SDK generated application responds to an error condition.
If you provide alternate C++ implementations of either
mclDefaultErrorHandler, then functions must be declared
extern "C". For
extern "C" int myPrintHandler(const char *s);
For each MATLAB file specified on the MATLAB
Compiler SDK command line, the product generates two functions, the
mlx function and the
mlf function. Each of
these generated functions performs the same action (calls your MATLAB file function). The two functions have different names and present
different interfaces. The name of each function is based on the name of the first
function in the MATLAB file (
sierpinski, in this example); each function
begins with a different three-letter prefix.
For C shared libraries, MATLAB
Compiler SDK generates the
functions as described in this section. For C++ shared libraries, the product
mlx function the same way it does for the C
shared library. However, the product generates a modified
function with these differences:
mlf before the function name is dropped to keep
compatibility with R13.
The arguments to the function are
The function that begins with the prefix
mlx takes the same
type and number of arguments as a MATLAB MEX-function. (See the External Interfaces documentation for more
details on MEX-functions.) The first argument,
nlhs, is the
number of output arguments, and the second argument,
a pointer to an array that the function will fill with the requested number of
return values. (The “
lhs” in these argument
names is short for “left-hand side” -- the output variables in a
MATLAB expression are those on the left-hand side of the assignment
operator.) The third and fourth parameters are the number of inputs and an array
containing the input variables.
void mlxSierpinski(int nlhs, mxArray *plhs, int nrhs, mxArray *prhs)
The second of the generated functions begins with the prefix
mlf. This function expects its input and output arguments
to be passed in as individual variables rather than packed into arrays. If the
function is capable of producing one or more outputs, the first argument is the
number of outputs requested by the caller.
void mlfSierpinski(int nargout, mxArray** x, mxArray** y, mxArray* iterations, mxArray* draw)
In both cases, the generated functions allocate memory for their return
values. If you do not delete this memory (via
when you are done with the output variables, your program will leak
Your program may call whichever of these functions is more convenient, as they
both invoke your MATLAB file function in an identical fashion. Most programs will likely
mlf form of the function to avoid managing the extra
arrays required by the
mlx form. The example program in
mlfSierpinski(2, &x, &y, iterations, draw);
In this call, the caller requests two output arguments,
y, and provides two inputs,
If the output variables you pass in to an
mlf function are
not NULL, the
mlf function will attempt to free them using
mxDestroyArray. This means that you can reuse output
variables in consecutive calls to
mlf functions without
worrying about memory leaks. It also implies that you must pass either
NULL or a valid MATLAB array for all output variables or your program will fail because
the memory manager cannot distinguish between a non-initialized (invalid) array
pointer and a valid array. It will try to free a pointer that is not NULL --
freeing an invalid pointer usually causes a segmentation fault or similar fatal
If your MATLAB function interface uses
varargout, you must pass them as cell arrays. For
example, if you have
varargins, you need to create one cell array of size
returned back as one cell array. The length of the
is equal to the number of return values specified in the function call minus the
number of actual variables passed. As in the MATLAB software, the cell array representing
has to be the last return variable (the variable preceding the first input
variable) and the cell array representing
varargins has to be
the last formal parameter to the function call.
For information on creating cell arrays, refer to the C MEX function interface in the External Interfaces documentation.
For example, consider this MATLAB file interface:
[a,b,varargout] = myfun(x,y,z,varargin)
The corresponding C interface for this is
void mlfMyfun(int numOfRetVars, mxArray **a, mxArray **b, mxArray **varargout, mxArray *x, mxArray *y, mxArray *z, mxArray *varargin)
In this example, the number of elements in
(numOfRetVars - 2), where
the two variables,
single row, multiple column cell arrays.
The C++ shared library interface does not support
varargin with zero (0) input arguments. Calling your
program using an empty
mwArray results in the packaged
library receiving an empty array with
nargin = 1. The C
shared library interface allows you to call
(the packaged MATLAB code interprets this as
FOO((mwArray)NULL) with the C++ shared library
interface causes the packaged MATLAB code to see an empty array as the first input and interprets
For example, package some MATLAB code as a C++ shared library using
as the MATLAB function's list of input arguments. Have the MATLAB code display the variable
nargin. Call the
library with function
and it won't package, producing this error message:
... 'FOO' : function does not take 0 arguments
mwArray junk; FOO(junk);
nargin=1. In MATLAB,
C++ Interfaces for MATLAB Functions Using varargin and varargout. The C++
mlx interface for MATLAB functions does not change even if the functions use
the C++ function interface (the second set of functions) changes if the
MATLAB function is using
For examples, view the generated code for various MATLAB function signatures that use
For simplicity, only the relevant part of the generated C++ function signature is shown in the following examples.
When using shared libraries, you may call functions to retrieve specific information from the MATLAB Runtime state. For details, see Set and Retrieve MATLAB Runtime Data for Shared Libraries.