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# sonareqtl

Compute transmission loss using the sonar equation

## Syntax

``TL = sonareqtl(SL,SNR,NL,DI)``
``TL = sonareqtl(SL,SNR,NL,DI,TS) ``

## Description

example

````TL = sonareqtl(SL,SNR,NL,DI)` returns the transmission loss of a signal from source to receiver that produces the signal-to-noise ratio, `SNR`. Transmission loss is computed using the Sonar Equation. Required inputs are the source level, `SL`, received noise level, `NL`, and receiver directivity index, `DI`. Use this syntax to evaluate passive sonar system performance.```

example

````TL = sonareqtl(SL,SNR,NL,DI,TS) ` returns the one-way transmission loss. The signal is reflected from a target with a target strength, `TS`. Use this syntax to evaluate active sonar system performance, where the transmitted signal is reflected from a target.```

## Examples

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Estimate the transmission loss of a signal arriving from a source with source level of 200 dB. The received SNR is 10 dB, the noise level is 75 dB, and the receive array directivity index is 25 dB.

```SNR = 10; SL = 200.0; NL = 75.0; DI = 25.0; TL = sonareqtl(SL,SNR,NL,DI)```
```TL = 140 ```

Estimate the one-way transmission loss of a signal transmitted by a source with source level of 130 dB//1 μPa and reflected from a target with 25 dB//1 ${m}^{2}$ target strength. The noise level is 45 dB//1 μPa, the receive array directivity is 25 dB.

```SL = 130.0; SNR = 15.0; NL = 45.0; DI = 25.0; TS = 25.0; TL = sonareqtl(SL,SNR,NL,DI,TS)```
```TL = 60 ```

## Input Arguments

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Sonar source level, specified as a scalar. Source level is the ratio of the source intensity to a reference intensity, converted to dB. The reference intensity is the intensity of a sound wave having a root-mean-square (rms) pressure of 1 μPa. Units are in dB//1 μPa.

Example: `90`

Data Types: `double`

Received signal-to-noise ratio, specified as a scalar. Units are in dB.

Example: `10`

Data Types: `double`

Received noise level, specified as a scalar. Noise level is the ratio of the noise intensity to a reference intensity, converted to dB. The reference intensity is the intensity of a sound wave having a root-mean-square (rms) pressure of 1 μPa. Units are in dB//1 μPa.

Example: `70`

Data Types: `double`

Receiver directivity index, specified as a scalar. Units are in dB.

Example: `30`

Data Types: `double`

Target strength, specified as a scalar. Target strength is the ratio of the intensity of a reflected signal at 1 m from a target to the incident intensity. Target strength is the sonar analog to radar cross section. Units are in dB//1 m2.

Example: `5`

Data Types: `double`

## Output Arguments

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Transmission loss, returned as a positive scalar. Transmission loss is the attenuation of sound intensity as the sound propagates through the underwater channel. Transmission loss is defined as the ratio of sound intensity at 1 m from a source to the sound intensity at distance R. When target strength, `TS`, is specified, transmission loss is two-way.

 Ainslie M. A. and J.G. McColm. "A simplified formula for viscous and chemical absorption in sea water." Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 103, Number 3, 1998, pp. 1671--1672.

 Urick, Robert J, Principles of Underwater Sound, 3rd ed. Peninsula Publishing, Los Altos, CA, 1983.

## Support

#### Exploring Hybrid Beamforming Architectures for 5G Systems

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