# batchnorm

Normalize data across all observations for each channel independently

*Since R2019b*

## Syntax

## Description

The batch normalization operation normalizes the input data
across all observations for each channel independently. To speed up training of the
convolutional neural network and reduce the sensitivity to network initialization, use batch
normalization between convolution and nonlinear operations such as `relu`

.

After normalization, the operation shifts the input by a learnable offset *β* and scales it by a learnable scale factor *γ*.

The `batchnorm`

function applies the batch normalization operation to
`dlarray`

data.
Using `dlarray`

objects makes working with high
dimensional data easier by allowing you to label the dimensions. For example, you can label
which dimensions correspond to spatial, time, channel, and batch dimensions using the
`"S"`

, `"T"`

, `"C"`

, and
`"B"`

labels, respectively. For unspecified and other dimensions, use the
`"U"`

label. For `dlarray`

object functions that operate
over particular dimensions, you can specify the dimension labels by formatting the
`dlarray`

object directly, or by using the `DataFormat`

option.

**Note**

To apply batch normalization within a `layerGraph`

object
or `Layer`

array, use
`batchNormalizationLayer`

.

applies the batch normalization operation to the input data `Y`

= batchnorm(`X`

,`offset`

,`scaleFactor`

)`X`

using the
population mean and variance of the input data and the specified offset and scale
factor.

The function normalizes over the `'S'`

(spatial),
`'T'`

(time), `'B'`

(batch), and `'U'`

(unspecified) dimensions of `X`

for each channel in the
`'C'`

(channel) dimension, independently.

For unformatted input data, use the `'DataFormat'`

option.

`[`

applies the batch normalization operation and also returns the population mean and variance
of the input data `Y`

,`popMu`

,`popSigmaSq`

] = batchnorm(`X`

,`offset`

,`scaleFactor`

)`X`

.

`[`

applies the batch normalization operation and also returns the updated moving mean and
variance statistics. `Y`

,`updatedMu`

,`updatedSigmaSq`

] = batchnorm(`X`

,`offset`

,`scaleFactor`

,`runningMu`

,`runningSigmaSq`

)`runningMu`

and `runningSigmaSq`

are the mean and variance values after the previous training iteration, respectively.

Use this syntax to maintain running values for the mean and variance statistics during training. When you have finished training, use the final updated values of the mean and variance for the batch normalization operation during prediction and classification.

applies the batch normalization operation using the mean `Y`

= batchnorm(`X`

,`offset`

,`scaleFactor`

,`trainedMu`

,`trainedSigmaSq`

)`trainedMu`

and
variance `trainedSigmaSq`

.

Use this syntax during classification and prediction, where
`trainedMu`

and `trainedSigmaSq`

are the final
values of the mean and variance after you have finished training, respectively.

`[___] = batchnorm(___,'DataFormat',FMT)`

applies the batch normalization operation to unformatted input data with format specified by
`FMT`

using any of the input or output combinations in previous syntaxes.
The output `Y`

is an unformatted `dlarray`

object with
dimensions in the same order as `X`

. For example,
`'DataFormat','SSCB'`

specifies data for 2-D image input with the format
`'SSCB'`

(spatial, spatial, channel, batch).

`[___] = batchnorm(___,`

specifies additional options using one or more name-value pair arguments. For example,
`Name,Value`

)`'MeanDecay',0.3`

sets the decay rate of the moving average
computation.

## Examples

## Input Arguments

## Output Arguments

## Algorithms

## Extended Capabilities

## Version History

**Introduced in R2019b**

## See Also

`relu`

| `fullyconnect`

| `dlconv`

| `dlarray`

| `dlgradient`

| `dlfeval`

| `groupnorm`

| `layernorm`