resnet3dLayers
resnet3dLayers
is not recommended. Use the resnet3dNetwork
function instead. For more information, see Version History.
Description
creates a 3D residual network with an image input size specified by
lgraph
= resnet3dLayers(inputSize
,numClasses
)inputSize
and a number of classes specified by
numClasses
. A residual network consists of stacks of blocks. Each
block contains deep learning layers. The network includes an image classification layer,
suitable for predicting the categorical label of an input image.
creates a residual network using one or more namevalue arguments using any of the input
arguments in the previous syntax. For example, lgraph
= resnet3dLayers(___,Name=Value
)InitialNumFilters=32
specifies 32 filters in the initial convolutional layer.
Examples
Create 3D Residual Network
Create a 3D residual network.
Create a 3D residual network with a bottleneck architecture.
imageSize = [224 224 64 3]; numClasses = 10; lgraph = resnet3dLayers(imageSize,numClasses)
lgraph = LayerGraph with properties: InputNames: {'input'} OutputNames: {'output'} Layers: [177x1 nnet.cnn.layer.Layer] Connections: [192x2 table]
Input Arguments
inputSize
— Network input image size
3element vector  4element vector
Network input image size, specified as one of the following:
3element vector in the form [height, width, depth]
4element vector in the form [height, width, depth, channel] where channel denotes the number of image channels.
The height, width, and
depth values must be greater than or equal to
initialStride * poolingStride * 2^{D},
where D is the number of downsampling blocks. Set the initial stride
using the InitialStride
argument. The pooling stride is
1
when the InitialPoolingLayer
is set to
"none"
, and 2
otherwise.
Data Types: single
 double
 int8
 int16
 int32
 int64
 uint8
 uint16
 uint32
 uint64
numClasses
— Number of classes
integer greater than 1
Number of classes in the image classification network, specified as an integer greater than 1.
Data Types: single
 double
 int8
 int16
 int32
 int64
 uint8
 uint16
 uint32
 uint64
NameValue Arguments
Specify optional pairs of arguments as
Name1=Value1,...,NameN=ValueN
, where Name
is
the argument name and Value
is the corresponding value.
Namevalue arguments must appear after other arguments, but the order of the
pairs does not matter.
Example: InitialFilterSize=[5,5,5],InitialNumFilters=32,BottleneckType="none"
specifies an initial filter size of 5by5by5 pixels, 32 initial filters, and a network
architecture without bottleneck components.
InitialFilterSize
— Filter size in first convolutional layer
7
(default)  positive integer  3element vector of positive integers
Filter size in the first convolutional layer, specified as one of the following:
Positive integer. The filter has equal height, width, and depth. For example, specifying
5
yields a filter of height 5, width 5, and depth 5.3element vector in the form [height, width, depth]. For example, specifying an initial filter size of
[1 5 2]
yields a filter of height 1, width 5, and depth 2.
Example: InitialFilterSize=[5,5,5]
Data Types: single
 double
 int8
 int16
 int32
 int64
 uint8
 uint16
 uint32
 uint64
InitialNumFilters
— Number of filters in first convolutional layer
64
(default)  positive integer
Number of filters in the first convolutional layer, specified as a positive integer. The number of initial filters determines the number of channels (feature maps) in the output of the first convolutional layer in the residual network.
Example: InitialNumFilters=32
Data Types: single
 double
 int8
 int16
 int32
 int64
 uint8
 uint16
 uint32
 uint64
InitialStride
— Stride in first convolutional layer
2
(default)  positive integer  3element vector of positive integers
Stride in the first convolutional layer, specified as a:
Positive integer. The stride has equal height, width, and depth. For example, specifying
3
yields a stride of height 3, width 3, and depth 3.3element vector in the form [height, width, depth]. For example, specifying an initial stride of
[1 2 2]
yields a stride of height 1, width 2, and depth 2.
The stride defines the step size for traversing the input in three dimensions.
Example: InitialStride=[3,3,3]
Data Types: single
 double
 int8
 int16
 int32
 int64
 uint8
 uint16
 uint32
 uint64
InitialPoolingLayer
— First pooling layer
"max"
(default)  "average"
 "none"
First pooling layer before the initial residual block, specified as one of the following:
"max"
— Use a max pooling layer before the initial residual block. For more information, seemaxPooling3dLayer
."average"
— Use an average pooling layer before the initial residual block. For more information, seeglobalAveragePooling3dLayer
."none"
— Do not use a pooling layer before the initial residual block.
Example: InitialPoolingLayer="average"
Data Types: char
 string
ResidualBlockType
— Residual block type
"batchnormbeforeadd"
(default)  "batchnormafteradd"
Residual block type, specified as one of the following:
The ResidualBlockType
argument specifies the location of the
batch normalization layer in the standard and downsampling residual blocks. For more
information, see More About.
Example: ResidualBlockType="batchnormafteradd"
Data Types: char
 string
BottleneckType
— Block bottleneck type
"downsamplefirstconv"
(default)  "none"
Block bottleneck type, specified as one of the following:
"downsamplefirstconv"
— Use bottleneck residual blocks that perform downsampling in the first convolutional layer of the downsampling residual blocks, using a stride of 2. A bottleneck residual block consists of three convolutional layers: a 1by1by1 layer for downsampling the channel dimension, a 3by3by3 convolutional layer, and a 1by1by1 layer for upsampling the channel dimension.The number of filters in the final convolutional layer is four times that in the first two convolutional layers. For more information, see
NumFilters
."none"
— Do not use bottleneck residual blocks. The residual blocks consist of two 3by3by3 convolutional layers.
A bottleneck block performs a 1by1by1 convolution before the 3by3by3 convolution to reduce the number of channels by a factor of four. Networks with and without bottleneck blocks will have a similar level of computational complexity, but the total number of features propagating in the residual connections is four times larger when you use bottleneck units. Therefore, using a bottleneck increases the efficiency of the network [1]. For more information on the layers in each residual block, see More About.
Example: BottleneckType="none"
Data Types: char
 string
StackDepth
— Number of residual blocks in each stack
[3 4 6 3]
(default)  vector of positive integers
Number of residual blocks in each stack, specified as a vector of positive
integers. For example, if the stack depth is [3 4 6 3]
, the network
has four stacks, with three blocks, four blocks, six blocks, and three blocks.
Specify the number of filters in the convolutional layers of each stack using the
NumFilters
argument. The StackDepth
value must
have the same number of elements as the NumFilters
value.
Example: StackDepth=[9 12 69 9]
Data Types: single
 double
 int8
 int16
 int32
 int64
 uint8
 uint16
 uint32
 uint64
NumFilters
— Number of filters in convolutional layers of each stack
[64 128 256 512]
(default)  vector of positive integers
Number of filters in the convolutional layers of each stack, specified as a vector of positive integers.
When you set
BottleneckType
to"downsamplefirstconv"
, the first two convolutional layers in each block of each stack have the same number of filters, set by theNumFilters
value. The final convolutional layer has four times the number of filters in the first two convolutional layers.For example, suppose you set
NumFilters
to[4 5]
andBottleneckType
to"downsamplefirstconv"
. In the first stack, the first two convolutional layers in each block have 4 filters and the final convolutional layer in each block has 16 filters. In the second stack, the first two convolutional layers in each block have 5 filters and the final convolutional layer has 20 filters.When you set
BottleneckType
to"none"
, the convolutional layers in each stack have the same number of filters, set by theNumFilters
value.
The NumFilters
value must have the same number of elements as
the StackDepth
value.
The NumFilters
value determines the layers on the residual
connection in the initial residual block. There is a convolutional layer on the
residual connection if one of the following conditions is met:
BottleneckType="downsamplefirstconv"
(default) andInitialNumFilters
is not equal to four times the first element ofNumFilters
.BottleneckType="none"
andInitialNumFilters
is not equal to the first element ofNumFilters
.
For more information about the layers in each residual block, see More About.
Example: NumFilters=[32 64 126 256]
Data Types: single
 double
 int8
 int16
 int32
 int64
 uint8
 uint16
 uint32
 uint64
Normalization
— Data normalization
"zerocenter"
(default)  "zscore"
Data normalization to apply every time data is forwardpropagated through the input layer, specified as one of the following:
"zerocenter"
— Subtract the mean. The mean is calculated at training time."zscore"
— Subtract the mean and divide by the standard deviation. The mean and standard deviation are calculated at training time.
Example: Normalization="zscore"
Data Types: char
 string
Output Arguments
lgraph
— 3D residual network
layerGraph
object
3D residual network, returned as a layerGraph
object.
More About
Residual Network
Residual networks (ResNets) are a type of deep network that consist of building blocks that have residual connections (also known as skip or shortcut connections). These connections allow the input to skip the convolutional units of the main branch, thus providing a simpler path through the network. By allowing the parameter gradients to flow more easily from the final layers to the earlier layers of the network, residual connections help mitigate the problem of vanishing gradients during early training.
The structure of a residual network is flexible. The key component is the inclusion of the residual connections within residual blocks. A group of residual blocks is called a stack. A ResNet architecture consists of initial layers, followed by stacks containing residual blocks, and then the final layers. A network has three types of residual blocks:
Initial residual block — This block occurs at the start of the first stack. The layers in the residual connection of the initial residual block determine if the block preserves the activation sizes or performs downsampling.
Standard residual block — This block occurs multiple times in each stack, after the first downsampling residual block. The standard residual block preserves the activation sizes.
Downsampling residual block — This block occurs once, at the start of each stack. The first convolutional unit in the downsampling block downsamples the spatial dimensions by a factor of two.
A typical stack has a downsampling residual block, followed by
m
standard residual blocks, where m
is a positive
integer. The first stack is the only stack that begins with an initial residual block.
The initial, standard, and downsampling residual blocks can be bottleneck or nonbottleneck blocks. Bottleneck blocks perform a 1by1by1 convolution before the 3by3by3 convolution, to reduce the number of channels by a factor of four. Networks with and without bottleneck blocks have a similar level of computational complexity, but the total number of features propagating in the residual connections is four times larger when you use the bottleneck units. Therefore, using bottleneck blocks increases the efficiency of the network.
The layers inside each block are determined by the type of block and the options you set.
Block Layers
Name  Initial Layers  Initial Residual Block  Standard Residual Block
(BottleneckType="downsamplefirstconv" )  Standard Residual Block
(BottleneckType="none" )  Downsampling Residual Block  Final Layers 
Description  A residual network starts with the following layers, in order:
Set the optional pooling layer using the
 The main branch of the initial residual block has the same layers as a standard residual block. The
If  The standard residual block with bottleneck units has the following layers, in order:
The standard block has a residual connection from the output of the previous block to the addition layer. Set the
position of the addition layer using the  The standard residual block without bottleneck units has the following layers, in order:
The standard block has a residual connection from the output of the previous block to the addition layer. Set the position of the
addition layer using the  The downsampling residual block is the same as the standard block
(either with or without the bottleneck) but with a stride of
The layers on the residual
connection depend on the
The downsampling block halves the height and width of the input, and increases the number of channels.  A residual network ends with the following layers, in order:

Example Visualization 
 Example of an initial residual block for a network without a bottleneck and with the batch normalization layer before the addition layer.
 Example of the standard residual block for a network with a bottleneck and with the batch normalization layer before the addition layer.
 Example of the standard residual block for a network without a bottleneck and with the batch normalization layer before the addition layer.
 Example of a downsampling residual block for a network without a bottleneck and with the batch normalization layer before the addition layer.


The convolution and fully connected layer weights are initialized using the He weight
initialization method [3]. For more information, see
convolution3dLayer
.
Tips
When working with small images, set the
InitialPoolingLayer
option to"none"
to remove the initial pooling layer and reduce the amount of downsampling.Residual networks are usually named ResNetX, where X is the depth of the network. The depth of a network is defined as the largest number of sequential convolutional or fully connected layers on a path from the input layer to the output layer. You can use the following formula to compute the depth of your network:
$$\text{depth=}\{\begin{array}{c}1+2{\displaystyle \sum}_{i=1}^{N}{s}_{i}+1\text{Ifnobottleneck}\\ 1+3{\displaystyle \sum}_{i=1}^{N}{s}_{i}+1\text{Ifbottleneck}\end{array}\text{,}$$
where s_{i} is the depth of stack i.
Networks with the same depth can have different network architectures. For example, you can create a 3D ResNet14 architecture with or without a bottleneck:
The relationship between bottleneck and nonbottleneck architectures also means that a network with a bottleneck will have a different depth than a network without a bottleneck.resnet14Bottleneck = resnet3dLayers([224 224 64 3],10, ... StackDepth=[2 2], ... NumFilters=[64 128]); resnet14NoBottleneck = resnet3dLayers([224 224 64 3],10, ... BottleneckType="none", ... StackDepth=[2 2 2], ... NumFilters=[64 128 256]);
resnet50Bottleneck = resnet3dLayers([224 224 64 3],10); resnet34NoBottleneck = resnet3dLayers([224 224 64 3],10, ... BottleneckType="none");
References
[1] He, Kaiming, Xiangyu Zhang, Shaoqing Ren, and Jian Sun. “Deep Residual Learning for Image Recognition.” Preprint, submitted December 10, 2015. https://arxiv.org/abs/1512.03385.
[2] He, Kaiming, Xiangyu Zhang, Shaoqing Ren, and Jian Sun. “Identity Mappings in Deep Residual Networks.” Preprint, submitted July 25, 2016. https://arxiv.org/abs/1603.05027.
[3] He, Kaiming, Xiangyu Zhang, Shaoqing Ren, and Jian Sun. "Delving Deep into Rectifiers: Surpassing HumanLevel Performance on ImageNet Classification." In Proceedings of the 2015 IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision, 1026–1034. Washington, DC: IEEE Computer Vision Society, 2015.
Extended Capabilities
GPU Code Generation
Generate CUDA® code for NVIDIA® GPUs using GPU Coder™.
Usage notes and limitations:
You can use the residual network for code generation. First, create the network using
the resnet3dLayers
function. Then, use the
trainNetwork
function to train the network. After training and
evaluating the network, you can generate code for the DAGNetwork
object
by using GPU Coder™.
Version History
Introduced in R2021bR2024a: Not recommended
Starting in R2024a, resnet3dLayers
is not recommended, use
resnet3dNetwork
instead.
There are no plans to remove support for resnet3dLayers
. However,
resnet3dNetwork
returns a dlnetwork
object, which has these advantages and is recommended instead:
dlnetwork
objects are a unified data type that supports network building, prediction, builtin training, visualization, compression, verification, and custom training loops.dlnetwork
objects support a wider range of network architectures that you can create or import from external platforms.The
trainnet
function supportsdlnetwork
objects, which enables you to easily specify loss functions. You can select from builtin loss functions or specify a custom loss function.Training and prediction with
dlnetwork
objects is typically faster thanLayerGraph
andtrainNetwork
workflows.
The resnet3dNetwork
function has the same syntaxes and arguments as
the resnet3dLayers
function. This table shows some typical usages of
the resnet3dLayers
function and how to update your code to use the
resnet3dNetwork
function instead.
Not Recommended  Recommended 

lgraph = resnet3dLayers(inputSize,numClasses);  net = resnet3dNetwork(inputSize,numClasses); 
lgraph =
resnet3dLayers(inputSize,numClasses,BottleneckType="none");  net =
resnet3dNetwork(inputSize,numClasses,BottleneckType="none"); 
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