# minus, -

Subtraction

## Syntax

## Description

`C = `

subtracts array `A`

- `B`

`B`

from array `A`

by
subtracting corresponding elements. The sizes of `A`

and
`B`

must be the same or be compatible.

If the sizes of `A`

and `B`

are compatible,
then the two arrays implicitly expand to match each other. For example, if
`A`

or `B`

is a scalar, then the scalar is
combined with each element of the other array. Also, vectors with different
orientations (one row vector and one column vector) implicitly expand to form a
matrix.

## Examples

### Subtract Scalar from Array

Create an array, `A`

, and subtract a scalar value from it.

A = [2 1; 3 5]; C = A - 2

`C = `*2×2*
0 -1
1 3

The scalar is subtracted from each entry of `A`

.

### Subtract Two Arrays

Create two arrays, `A`

and `B`

, and subtract the second, `B`

, from the first, `A`

.

A = [1 0; 2 4]; B = [5 9; 2 1]; C = A - B

`C = `*2×2*
-4 -9
0 3

The elements of `B`

are subtracted from the corresponding elements of `A`

.

Use the syntax `-C`

to negate the elements of `C`

.

-C

`ans = `*2×2*
4 9
0 -3

### Subtract Row and Column Vectors

Create a 1-by-2 row vector and 3-by-1 column vector and subtract them.

a = 1:2; b = (1:3)'; a - b

`ans = `*3×2*
0 1
-1 0
-2 -1

The result is a 3-by-2 matrix, where each (i,j) element in the matrix is equal to a`(j) - b(i)`

:

$$\mathit{a}=\left[{\mathit{a}}_{1}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{\mathit{a}}_{2}\right],\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\mathit{b}=\left[\begin{array}{c}{\mathit{b}}_{1}\\ {\mathit{b}}_{2}\\ {\mathit{b}}_{3}\end{array}\right],\text{\hspace{0.17em}\hspace{0.17em}\hspace{0.17em}\hspace{0.17em}\hspace{0.17em}\hspace{0.17em}\hspace{0.17em}\hspace{0.17em}\hspace{0.17em}\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\mathit{a}-\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\mathit{b}=\left[\begin{array}{cc}{\mathit{a}}_{1}-{\mathit{b}}_{1}& {\mathit{a}}_{2}-{\mathit{b}}_{1}\\ {\mathit{a}}_{1}-{\mathit{b}}_{2}& {\mathit{a}}_{2}-{\mathit{b}}_{2}\\ {\mathit{a}}_{1}-{\mathit{b}}_{3}& {\mathit{a}}_{2}-{\mathit{b}}_{3}\end{array}\right].$$

### Subtract Mean from Matrix

Create a matrix, `A`

. Scale the elements in each column by subtracting the mean.

A = [1 9 3; 2 7 8]

`A = `*2×3*
1 9 3
2 7 8

A - mean(A)

`ans = `*2×3*
-0.5000 1.0000 -2.5000
0.5000 -1.0000 2.5000

### Subtract Tables

*Since R2023a*

Create two tables and subtract one of them from the other. The row names (if present in both) and variable names must be the same, but do not need to be in the same orders. Rows and variables of the output are in the same orders as the first input.

A = table([1;2],[3;4],VariableNames=["V1","V2"],RowNames=["R1","R2"])

`A=`*2×2 table*
V1 V2
__ __
R1 1 3
R2 2 4

B = table([4;2],[3;1],VariableNames=["V2","V1"],RowNames=["R2","R1"])

`B=`*2×2 table*
V2 V1
__ __
R2 4 3
R1 2 1

C = A - B

`C=`*2×2 table*
V1 V2
__ __
R1 0 1
R2 -1 0

## Input Arguments

`A`

, `B`

— Operands

scalars | vectors | matrices | multidimensional arrays | tables | timetables

Operands, specified as scalars, vectors, matrices, multidimensional
arrays, tables, or timetables. Inputs `A`

and
`B`

must either be the same size or have sizes that are
compatible (for example, `A`

is an
`M`

-by-`N`

matrix and
`B`

is a scalar or
`1`

-by-`N`

row vector). For more
information, see Compatible Array Sizes for Basic Operations.

Operands with an integer data type cannot be complex.

If one input is a

`datetime`

array,`duration`

array, or`calendarDuration`

array, then numeric values in the other input are treated as a number of 24-hour days.

Inputs that are tables or timetables must meet the
following conditions:* (since R2023a)*

If an input is a table or timetable, then all its variables must have data types that support the operation.

If only one input is a table or timetable, then the other input must be a numeric or logical array.

If both inputs are tables or timetables, then:

Both inputs must have the same size, or one of them must be a one-row table.

Both inputs must have variables with the same names. However, the variables in each input can be in a different order.

If both inputs are tables and they both have row names, then their row names must be the same. However, the row names in each input can be in a different order.

If both inputs are timetables, then their row times must be the same. However, the row times in each input can be in a different order.

**Data Types: **`single`

| `double`

| `int8`

| `int16`

| `int32`

| `int64`

| `uint8`

| `uint16`

| `uint32`

| `uint64`

| `logical`

| `char`

| `datetime`

| `duration`

| `calendarDuration`

| `table`

| `timetable`

**Complex Number Support: **Yes

## Extended Capabilities

### Tall Arrays

Calculate with arrays that have more rows than fit in memory.

The
`minus`

function fully supports tall arrays. For more information,
see Tall Arrays.

### C/C++ Code Generation

Generate C and C++ code using MATLAB® Coder™.

Usage notes and limitations:

If you use

`minus`

with single type and double type operands, the generated code might not produce the same result as MATLAB^{®}. See Binary Element-Wise Operations with Single and Double Operands (MATLAB Coder).

### GPU Code Generation

Generate CUDA® code for NVIDIA® GPUs using GPU Coder™.

Usage notes and limitations:

If you use

`minus`

with single type and double type operands, the generated code might not produce the same result as MATLAB. See Binary Element-Wise Operations with Single and Double Operands (MATLAB Coder).

### Thread-Based Environment

Run code in the background using MATLAB® `backgroundPool`

or accelerate code with Parallel Computing Toolbox™ `ThreadPool`

.

This function fully supports thread-based environments. For more information, see Run MATLAB Functions in Thread-Based Environment.

### GPU Arrays

Accelerate code by running on a graphics processing unit (GPU) using Parallel Computing Toolbox™.

The `minus`

function
fully supports GPU arrays. To run the function on a GPU, specify the input data as a `gpuArray`

(Parallel Computing Toolbox). For more information, see Run MATLAB Functions on a GPU (Parallel Computing Toolbox).

### Distributed Arrays

Partition large arrays across the combined memory of your cluster using Parallel Computing Toolbox™.

This function fully supports distributed arrays. For more information, see Run MATLAB Functions with Distributed Arrays (Parallel Computing Toolbox).

## Version History

**Introduced before R2006a**

### R2023a: Perform operations directly on tables and timetables

The `minus`

operator supports operations directly on tables and
timetables without indexing to access their variables. All variables must have data types
that support the operation. For more information, see Direct Calculations on Tables and Timetables.

### R2020b: Implicit expansion change affects `calendarDuration`

, `datetime`

, and `duration`

arrays

Starting in R2020b, `minus`

supports implicit expansion when the
arguments are `calendarDuration`

, `datetime`

, or
`duration`

arrays. Between R2020a and R2016b, implicit
expansion was supported only for numeric data types.

### R2016b: Implicit expansion change affects arguments for operators

Starting in R2016b with the addition of implicit expansion, some combinations of arguments for basic operations that previously returned errors now produce results. For example, you previously could not add a row and a column vector, but those operands are now valid for addition. In other words, an expression like `[1 2] + [1; 2]`

previously returned a size mismatch error, but now it executes.

If your code uses element-wise operators and relies on the errors that MATLAB previously returned for mismatched sizes, particularly within a `try`

/`catch`

block, then your code might no longer catch those errors.

For more information on the required input sizes for basic array operations, see Compatible Array Sizes for Basic Operations.

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