Yes, MATLAB can be used to visualize data for turbulent flows. One of the examples would be the MATLAB code available on the Johns Hopkins Turbulence database website:Using the JHU Turbulence Database Matlab Analysis Tools. This GUI based implementation "provides functionality for plotting/animating velocity and vorticity fields, computing and plotting longitudinal energy spectra, and computing PDF's of velocity, pressure, and velocity increments". Here is one of the snapshots I could produce at my end.
Here, the data is fetched from the JHU Turbulence Database Cluster. You can write a similar code to visualize your own data.
You may check out the QuickerSim CFD Toolbox for MATLAB. It is a third-party toolbox for solving fluid flows in the MATLAB environment. You can create heat transfer and fluid flow simulations in 2-D and 3-D.
The toolbox provides the user with efficient CFD solvers and auxiliary (e.g. mesh-manipulation, preprocessing, and postprocessing) functions inside of MATLAB. It encourages users to make use of them in combination with their own code.
You can check out the free code or ask for a trial full verion here.