# caesar cyphor encryption problem .

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mayank ghugretkar on 12 Jun 2019
Commented: XINYI CAI on 15 Mar 2021
Caesar's cypher is the simplest encryption algorithm. It adds a fixed value to the ASCII (unicode) value of each character of a text. In other words, it shifts the characters. Decrypting a text is simply shifting it back by the same amount, that is, it substract the same value from the characters. Write a function called caesar that accepts two arguments: the first is the character vector to be encrypted, while the second is the shift amount. The function returns the output argument coded, the encrypted text. The function needs to work with all the visible ASCII characters from space to ~. The ASCII codes of these are 32 through 126. If the shifted code goes outside of this range, it should wrap around. For example, if we shift ~ by 1, the result should be space. If we shift space by -1, the result should be ~.
for the first part of the code...this works
function coded=caesar(A,n)
char_set=char(32):char(126)
coded=char(A+n);
end
But if i want to maintain the range between 32 and 126 ....and also wrap around the same values as asked in later half of question , it doesnt work
function coded=caesar(A,n)
char_set=char(32):char(126)
while A <=char_set
coded=char(A+n);
end
end
please help me with the concerned code buiding ....( expect a simple approach , since iam a begineer)
test for these outputs
caesar('ABCD',1)
ans =
'BCDE'
caesar('xyz ~',1)
ans =
'yz{! '
caesar('xyz ~',-1)
ans =
'wxy~}' %these are correct answers to the code
Rik on 28 Sep 2020
@Danial, which code are you talking about? Sonu already mentioned their code doesn't work.

Yitong Liu on 24 Aug 2019
Edited: per isakson on 2 May 2020
function coded = caesar(M, n)
num = double(M); %Converts string into double
num2 = num;
N = n - 95 * fix(n/95);
for i = 1:length(num);
if num(i) + N < 32 %If ASCII value goes below 32
num2(i) = 126 - (31- num(i) - N);
elseif num(i) + N > 126 %If ASCII value goes beyond 126
num2(i) = 32 + (num(i) + N -127);
else
num2(i) = num(i) + N ; %If ASCII value goes normal
end
coded = char(num2);
end
I spent halfhour on solving this problem, a little bit hard.
This is correct code. Hope it helps.
Walter Roberson on 1 Mar 2021
You may need to "Show 22 older comments" to read the discussion.

Marilou on 17 Oct 2019
function coded= caesar(string,shift)
value=string+shift;
for i=1:length(value)
while value(i)<32
value(i)=value(i)+95;
end
while value(i)>126
value(i)=value(i)-95;
end
end
coded=char(value);
Walter Roberson on 16 Feb 2021
That is @Marilou's code, not mine.
Suppose the input were
char(126)
ans = '~'
and you were asked to shift it forward by 2 positions. What is the expected output? We read the problem requirements:
function needs to work with all the visible ASCII characters from space to ~. The ASCII codes of these are 32 through 126. If the shifted code goes outside of this range, it should wrap around
Wrap around in that forward direction means that the character after char(126) should be char(32) then char(33), then char(34) and so on. Thus if we started with ~ (char 126) and shifted forward two, we need to end up with char(33)
char(34)
ans = '"'
which is
original = 126
original = 126
shift = 2
shift = 2
target = 33
target = 33
amount_to_go_back = original + shift - target
amount_to_go_back = 95
which also happens to be
length(32:126)
ans = 95

Pavel Radko on 11 Aug 2020
Edited: Pavel Radko on 13 Aug 2020
Thanks to a person who told about circshift function. I've been tried several hours to solve this task without that function.
So finaly I've passed all tests. And final code is much shorter and elegant as I have at today's morning ))
It has only 4 lines including the "end".
The main idea is to shift character table, but not the symbols of input.
% Write a function "caesar" that uses as input "array" - array
% of ASCII table characters, and "shift" - the value (integer) of shifting the "array" elements
% via ASCII table (from 32nd to 126th)
function coded = caesar (array,shift)
shifted_array=circshift(char(32:126),-shift);
% we shift (roll) ASCII characters from 32 to 126 on the "shift" amount
% note that we use "-shift", because we shift the character table but not
% the characters in our "array"
% as output we get all ASCII characters from 32 to 126 but shifted (rolled)
coded = shifted_array(double(array)-31)
% double(array) - gets array of numbers that correspond to ASCII character
% table
% (double(array)-31) - this outs array of numbers with caracter indices
% shifted by -31
% "-31" because we use "shifted_array" that hasnt ASCII characters from 1 to 31
% shifted_array() - uses array of numbers in parentheses as shifted table
% indices and outputs corresponding characters from it
end
Qaiser khan Bozdar on 10 Jan 2021
Nice solution I got it.

Wilver Sánchez on 7 Feb 2020
function coded = caesar(text,amound)
n=amound - 95 * fix(amound/95);
v=double(text)+n;
v(v<32)=126-(31-v(v<32));
v(v>126)=32+(-127+v(v>126));
coded=char(v);
end
Wilver Sánchez on 7 Feb 2020
I've wrote this code it solves de problem in a different way that the ones I've seen in the previous answers, I hope it can help someone.

Guillaume on 12 Jun 2019
Use mod or rem to constrain values between 0 and a maximum, with wrap-around.e.g:
>> mod(0:51, 26)
ans =
Columns 1 through 21
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Columns 22 through 42
21 22 23 24 25 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Columns 43 through 52
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
You can see that values 26, 27, ... go back to 0, 1, ...
Add/subtract some offsets to do the same for values in the range 32:126
Walter Roberson on 9 Jan 2021
mod() works for negative shifts too
S = 'xyla'
S = 'xyla'
shift = 5
shift = 5
char('a' + mod(S - 'a' + shift,26))
ans = 'cdqf'
char('a' + mod(S - 'a' - shift,26))
ans = 'stgv'

Zeyuan Cao on 7 Feb 2020
I came up with an approach which uses logical indexing instead of if statement
function coded=caesar(str,n)
str1=double(str);
m=n-95*floor(n/95);
codedstr1=str1+m;
codedstr1(codedstr1>=127)=codedstr1(codedstr1>=127)-127+32;
coded=char(codedstr1);
end
Sahil on 19 Mar 2020
Dude this only half the solution you missed " message + n < 32 " condition
function coded = caesar(message , n)
msg = double(message);
m = mod(n, 95);
coded_msg = msg + m;
coded_msg(coded_msg > 126) = coded_msg(coded_msg > 126) - 127 + 32;
coded_msg(coded_msg < 32) = coded_msg(coded_msg < 32) + 127 -32;
coded =char(coded_msg);
end

Cyrus David Pastelero on 8 Jul 2020
Edited: Cyrus David Pastelero on 8 Jul 2020
%This is my aproach to the problem.
function coded = caesar(arr, num)
size = strlength(arr);
coded = arr+num
for i = 1:size
while coded(i)> 126
coded(i) = coded(i) - 95;
end
while coded(i) < 32
coded(i) = coded(i) + 95;
end
end
coded = char(coded);
end
Santhosh Kumar on 11 Dec 2020
why are we using + or - 95 in the code ?

CCF2017 MIT on 2 Jul 2019
Edited: CCF2017 MIT on 2 Jul 2019
This problem is asking you to shift the character variable by a given element n
the word wrap means that if the ASCII code of your character exceeds 32 or 126 you need to circle back again .
For example
if ASCII code is 97 and n (shift variable) is 45 so your ASCII code is 142 which exceeds 126. So you need to subtract 126 from 142
142-126, and add the net result to 31.
you need'nt do all that..... use the function called circshift
so i defined a character array from 32 to 126 which is the required ascii range
ch=char(32:126)
these are the characters.
ch =
' !"#\$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~'
and when i use the circshift command
ch_shift_pos=circshift(ch,2)
ch_shift_pos =
'}~ !"#\$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|'
ch_shift_neg=circshift(ch,-2)
ch_shift_neg=
'"#\$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~ !'
Notice how the characters have shifted by 2 positions without you having to manually keep it within its range.
now if i want to find a character and its corresponding encrypted/shifted value i simply transfer the index since both ch and ch_shift are of the same size
so for example: if i want to find the encryption character of a , i first find the index of a in the 'ch' array and store it in a variable called x
x=strfind(ch,'a')
x =
66
and then i use that index to find the encryption in the shifted array
ch_shift_pos(x)
ans =
'_'
ch_shift_neg(x)
ans =
'c'
There! thats your answer. As simple as that. But i had to rack my brains for it. :P
Guillaume on 2 Jul 2019
I have explained how to do it in various comments here. I'm not sure how I can explain it more without giving the solution away.
In one comment, I wrote that all that is needed is: "a subtraction by an integer, a mod, an addition by the same integer" (and a conversion to char afterwards).
You have a message with a set of numbers (characters) between two values a and b. Shift that set of numbers so that it is between 0 and b-a. Add your caesar shift. This may underflow 0 or overflow b-a. Apply mod so that it wraps back between 0 and b-a. Reverse your original shift so that the numbers are once agian between a and b.

Rahul Gulia on 22 Jul 2019
Edited: Guillaume on 22 Jul 2019
function coded = caesar(str,n)
num1 = double(str); %Converting string to double to make the defined shifts
for i = 1 : length(num1)
if num1(i) + n > 126 % If ASCII value goes beyond 126
m = num1(i)-126+n;
p = 31+m;
num1(i) = p;
elseif num1(i)+n < 32 % If ASCII value goes below 32
m = 32 - num1(i) + n;
p = 126 - m;
num1(i) = p;
else m = num1(i) + n; % In a normal condition
num1(i) = m;
end
code(i) = num1(i);
end
coded = char(code);
I have written this code. Can anyone please expain as what is wrong in here? I know i have made a mistake. But i am not able to figure it out.
Walter Roberson on 12 Jul 2020
Suppose n = 1000 and the character vector is 'a' (which is 97 decimal). num1 would become 97. num1(1)+1000 > 126, so m = 97-126+1000 would be m=971. Then p=31+971 gives p = 1002 . This is not the desired result.
The code needs to adjust num1+n to be between 32 and 126 (inclusive)

Sahil on 19 Mar 2020
function coded = caesar(message , n)
msg = double(message);
m = mod(n, 95); % this contricts the key within the range
coded_msg = msg + m;
coded_msg(coded_msg > 126) = coded_msg(coded_msg > 126) - 95;
coded_msg(coded_msg < 32) = coded_msg(coded_msg < 32) + 95;
coded =char(coded_msg);
end
Capulus_love on 12 Aug 2020
thanks. i miss the sentence
m = mod(n, 95); % this contricts the key within the range
now i pass this question! :)

shreyansh pitroda on 30 Mar 2020
%% Function encode the code by shifting it by amount user as specified
function [coded]= caesar(code , shift) %% TAKES TWO VALUE CODE AND AMOUNT OF SHIFT
A = double(code);
x = 1;
z = length(A);
z = z+ 1;
shift = shift - 95*(fix(shift/95));
code(1:end) = code(1:end) + shift;
while x ~= z %%used the while loop to provide count
if code(1,x)< 32 %%if the value is below 32
A(1,x) = A(1,x) - 32;
A(1,x) = A(1,x) + shift;
A(1,x) = A(1,x) + 127;
elseif (code(1,x)>32)&&(code(1,x)<127) %% if value is between 32 and 127
A(1,x) = A(1,x) + shift;
else %% if the value is greater than 127
A(1,x) = A(1,x) - 127;
A(1,x) = A(1,x) + shift;
A(1,x) = A(1,x) + 32;
end
x= x + 1;
end
coded = char(A); %% code print
end

Washida Kami on 31 Mar 2020
%uses the mod function
function txt = caesar(txt,key)
txt = double(txt) + key;
first = double(' ');
last = double('~');
% use mod to shift the characters - notice the + 1
% this is a common error and results in shifts
% being off by 1
txt = char(mod(txt - first,last - first + 1) + first);
end
%uses the circshift function
function y = caesar2(ch, key)
v = ' ' : '~';
[~, loc] = ismember(ch, v);
v2 = circshift(v, -key);
y = v2(loc);
end
##### 2 CommentsShowHide 1 older comment
Walter Roberson on 20 Aug 2020
Suppose txt == first, then txt-first is 0, and mod(0,something) is 0. Now suppose you had the first-1 that you propose, then the result would be first-1 . Clearly, though, it makes the most sense for the calculation to leave you within the first to last range, instead of before the range.

Rajat Munjal on 13 Apr 2020
function coded = caesar(ctbe,sa)
dd = double(ctbe)
if dd>=32 & dd<=126
ss =dd +sa
ss(ss<32) = rem((ss(ss<32)-32),95)+127
ss(ss>126)=rem((ss(ss>126)-126),95)+31
coded =char(ss);
end
end
##### 2 CommentsShowHide 1 older comment
Walter Roberson on 13 Apr 2020
dd = double(ctbe)
ctbe will be a vector of char, so dd will be a vector of double.
if dd>=32 & dd<=126
dd>=32 & dd<=126 would be a logical vector. When you test a non-scalar with if or while, it is considered true if all of the items being tested are non-zero (true). If even one of the entries was not within that range then the test would be considered false as a whole... and you have no else condition so nothing would be assigned to coded

Olel Arem on 30 Apr 2020
Edited: Olel Arem on 30 Apr 2020
Short code with use of Logical Indexing:
function coded= caesar(string,shift)
mod_str=string+shift;
for i=1:length(mod_str)
mod_str(mod_str<32)=mod_str(mod_str<32)+95;
mod_str(mod_str>126)=mod_str(mod_str>126)-95;
end
coded=char(mod_str);

Omkar Kadam on 9 May 2020
function coded = caesar(V,N)
ascii = char(32:126);
coded1 = (double(V) + N - 31);
found = false;
ii = 1;
coded2 = [];
while ~(found)
if ii < length(coded1)+1
j = coded1(ii);
ii = ii +1;
while j < 32
j = j + 126 - 31;
end
while j > length(ascii)
j = j - length(ascii);
end
coded2 = abs([coded2,j]);
else
found = true;
break;
end
end
coded = ascii(coded2); %this is 100% working code.

GAURAV RAJ on 10 May 2020
help me in this . i wrote this code but i am getting error please tell me what's wrong in this
function y=caesar(a,b)
q=double(a);
for i=1:length(a)
d(i)=q(i)+b;
if d(i)>=32;
e(i)=rem(d(i),126);
else
e(i)=95+d(i);
end
if e(i)>=32 ;
y(i)=char(e(i));
elseif e(i)==0;
y(i)=char(126);
else
e(i)=e(i)+31;
y(i)=char(e(i));
end
end
end
Walter Roberson on 11 May 2020
Suppose b is -200 and q is double('A') = 65.
d = 65-200 -> d = -135
-135 >= 32 is false, so
e = 95 + -135 = -40
-40 >= 32 is false
-40 == 0 is false
e(i) = -40 + 31 = -9
y(i) = char(-9) which is same as char(0)

Arafat Roney on 11 May 2020
function coded=caesar(c,s)
n=mod(s,95);
sc=c+n;
l=length(sc);
w=[];
for i=1:l
if sc(i)>126
p=31+(sc(i)-126);
elseif sc(i)<32
p=126-abs(sc(i)-31);
else
p=sc(i);
end
w=[w p];
end
coded=char(w);
end

Shandilya Kiran Bhatt on 12 May 2020
Edited: Walter Roberson on 12 May 2020
The code below is a long one but it is using a while loop and if you read it, it is an easy one and it is correct for any random shifts.
function coded = caesar(A,n)
a = double(A);
z = a + n;
for i =1: length(a)
if z(i)>126
b = z(i) - 126;
if b <=95
z(i) = 31 + b;
else
while b > 95
b = b-95;
end
z(i) = 31 + b;
end
end
if z(i) < 32
c = 32 - z(i);
if c <= 95
z(i) = 127 - c;
else
while c >95
c = c - 95;
end
z(i) = 127 -c;
end
end
end
encrypted_code = z;
coded = char(encrypted_code);
end

This code is quite lenghty, but logic that i have used is quite simple understand
function coded = caesar(A, n)
a = double(A)
ele=size(a)
for i=1:ele(1,2)
if n>=0
for j=1:n
a(i) = a(i)+1;
if a(i)>126
a(i)=32;
end
end
end
if n<0
for j=1:abs(n)
a(i) = a(i)-1;
if a(i)<32
a(i)=126;
end
end
end
end
coded = char(a);
end

Julian Veran on 18 May 2020
function coded = caesar(M, n)
num = double(M); %Converts string into double
num2 = num;
N = n - 95 * fix(n/95);
for i = 1:length(num);
if num(i) + N < 32 %If ASCII value goes below 32
num2(i) = 126 - (31- num(i) - N);
elseif num(i) + N > 126 %If ASCII value goes beyond 126
num2(i) = 32 + (num(i) + N -127);
else
num2(i) = num(i) + N ; %If ASCII value goes normal
end
coded = char(num2);
end
Tatiana Suaza Varela on 19 Dec 2020
Hi! Sorry for the inconveniences, but please could you explain why we need to convert the string into double?

Julian Veran on 18 May 2020
(using mod function)
function txt = caesar(txt,key)
txt = double(txt) + key;
first = double(' ');
last = double('~');
% use mod to shift the characters - notice the + 1
% this is a common error and results in shifts
% being off by 1
txt = char(mod(txt - first,last - first + 1) + first);
end
(using circ shify function)
function y = caesar2(ch, key)
v = ' ' : '~';
[~, loc] = ismember(ch, v);
v2 = circshift(v, -key);
y = v2(loc);
end
##### 2 CommentsShowHide 1 older comment
Rik on 15 Aug 2020
Have you read the documentation for the mod function?
doc mod

Timothy Simon Thomas on 19 May 2020
%% CAESAR's SIPHER
% CAESAR(message,code): Message is the message to be encripted
% CODE represents the ASCII shift
% Wrapping always enabled
function coded = caesar(message,code)
while(code>95)
code=code-95;
end
while(code<-95)
code=code+95;
end
message=message+code; %base case
message(message>126)=char(double(message(message>126))-95) %overshoot
message(message<32)=char(double(message(message<32))+95) %undershoot
coded=char(message);
end

Taif Ahmed BIpul on 21 May 2020
function coded=caesar(v,n)
x=double(v)+n;
q=x(x<32);
p=x(x>126);
while q<32;
x(x<32)=x(x<32)+95;
q=x(x<32);
end
while p>126;
x(x>126)=x(x>126)-95;
p=x(x>126);
end
coded=char(x);
end

yazan ziyad on 29 May 2020
here you go
function [coded]=caesar(a,shift)
m=double(a)
codedd=m+shift;
for i=1:abs(shift)
codedd(codedd<32)=127-(32-codedd(codedd<32));
codedd(codedd>126)=31+(codedd(codedd>126)-126)
coded=char(codedd)
end
end

SONU NIGAM on 29 May 2020
function coded = caesar(char_vec,shift_amount)
char_value = char_vec+shift_amount;
for ii = 1:length(char_value)
if char_value>126
coded = char(char_value-95);
elseif char_value<32
coded = char(char_value+95);
else
coded = char(char_value);
end
end
end
I got correct output but in the assignment when i run this program it shows error...What fault i did i m unable to notice,if anyone can explain me then plz help me.

Soroush sa on 30 May 2020
I'm beginner and I have written this code. Can anybody help me by expaining that what is wrong in here?
function coded = caesar(string,shift)
double_A = double(string);
position = double_A + shift;
for ii = 1:length(position)
if position > 126
new_position = position - 95;
elseif position < 32
new_position = position + 95;
else
new_position = position;
end
end
coded = char(new_position);
end
Walter Roberson on 30 May 2020
Consider what would happen if the shift were (say) 450 ?

Sumit Kumar Sharma on 4 Jun 2020
function coded=caesar(a,b)
x=double(a);
k=mod(b,95);
q=[];
for j=1:length(x)
p=x(j)+k;
if p<=126 && p>=32
q=[q p];
elseif p>126
r=p-95;
q=[q r] ;
elseif p<32
s=p+95;
q=[q s];
end
end
coded=char(q);
end

Vistasp Edulji on 22 Jun 2020
A much shorter solution is possible using logical arrays.
function coded =caesar(str, n)
coded = str + n;
while ( sum(coded >= 127) > 0 || sum(coded <= 31) >0 )
coded(coded >= 127) = 31 + (coded(coded>=127)-126);
coded(coded <= 31) = 127 - (32-coded(coded<=31));
end
coded = char(coded);
The while loop condition simply ensures that there is no overflow after each round of correction
The important thing is your output should be a string

Alankriti Mallick on 26 Jul 2020
function coded= caesar(v,s)
v=v+s;
v(v>126)=rem(v(v>126),95);
v(v<32)=127-rem(32-v(v<32),95);
coded=char(v);

Ankit singh chauhan on 16 Aug 2020
Edited: Walter Roberson on 16 Aug 2020
function cloud=caesar(m,n)
sum=double(m+n);
for i=1:length(sum)
if n>0
if (sum(i)<127)
cloud(i)=char(sum(i));
elseif sum(i)>126
store=sum(i)-126;
sto=mod(store,95);
if sto==0
s=126;
cloud(i)=char(s+sto);
else
s=32;
cloud(i)=char(s+sto-1);
end
end
else
if n<0
if (sum(i)>=32)
cloud(i)=char(sum(i));
else
if sum(i)<32
store=32-sum(i);
sto=mod(store,95);
cloud(i)=char(126-sto+1);
end
end
end
end
end
end

Edited: Juan Sebastián Hincapié Montes on 21 Aug 2020
function [coded] = caesar(v ,sa)
secret = double(v);
code = ones(1, length(v));
for ii=1:length(secret)
if secret(ii)+sa > 126 %greater than 126
remainder=rem(sa,95);
if remainder + secret(ii)>126 %if the double plus the remainder is greater than 32
code(ii)=31+(remainder-(126-secret(ii)));
else
code(ii)=remainder+secret(ii); %if the double plus the remainder isn't greater than 32
end
elseif secret(ii)+sa < 32 %lower than 32
remainder=abs(rem(sa,95));
if secret(ii)-remainder < 32 %if the double plus the remainder is lower than 32
code(ii)=127-(remainder-(secret(ii)-32));
else
code(ii)=secret(ii)-remainder; %if the double plus the remainder isn't lower than 32
end
else
code(ii) = sa + secret(ii); %everything is normal
end
end
coded=char(code);
end

Mati Somp on 5 Oct 2020
simple and fast
function coded = caesar(txt,nr)
char_set=char(32):char(126);
char_set3=[char_set char_set char_set];
coded = char_set3(txt+64+nr-floor(nr/95)*95);
end
Walter Roberson on 6 Oct 2020
Addition and subtraction and division and floor and concatenation and array indexing and char and the colon operator, are all readymade functions.

Dhinesh Kumar on 11 Oct 2020
function txt = caesar(txt,key)
txt = double(txt) + key;
first = double(' ');
last = double('~');
% use mod to shift the characters - notice the + 1
% this is a common error and results in shifts
% being off by 1
txt = char(mod(txt - first,last - first + 1) + first);
end
This also helps to solve the problem. Try it

XINYI CAI on 15 Mar 2021
Can someone help to explain how the ismember function work in this provided solution? Why it returns double instead of strings? Thanks in advance.
##### 2 CommentsShowHide 1 older comment
XINYI CAI on 15 Mar 2021
thank you! i got it