MATLAB installer needs to be launched as root only if the installer has to write/modify files which only a root user can access such as /usr/local/MATLAB and /usr/local/bin. If you specify a destination folder which a non-root user has access to and do not want MATLAB installer to automatically create symlinks, then launching MATLAB installer as non-root user is sufficient to install MATLAB.
However, if you wish to perform a non-graphical installation, I would suggest you to go through Install Noninteractively documention page. Please note that this process requires you to access File Installation Key from your MathWorks account license page.
Hope this helps