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tf2zpk

Convert transfer function filter parameters to zero-pole-gain form

Description

example

[z,p,k] = tf2zpk(b,a) finds the matrix of zeros z, the vector of poles p, and the associated vector of gains k from the transfer function parameters b and a. The function converts a polynomial transfer-function representation

$H\left(z\right)=\frac{B\left(z\right)}{A\left(z\right)}=\frac{{b}_{1}+{b}_{2}{z}^{-1}\cdots +{b}_{n-1}{z}^{-n}+{b}_{n}{z}^{-n-1}}{{a}_{1}+{a}_{2}{z}^{-1}\cdots +{a}_{m-1}{z}^{-m}+{a}_{m}{z}^{-m-1}}$

of a single-input/multi-output (SIMO) discrete-time system to a factored transfer function form

$H\left(z\right)=\frac{Z\left(z\right)}{P\left(z\right)}=k\frac{\left(z-{z}_{1}\right)\left(z-{z}_{2}\right)\cdots \left(z-{z}_{m}\right)}{\left(z-{p}_{1}\right)\left(z-{p}_{2}\right)\cdots \left(z-{p}_{n}\right)}.$

Note

Use tf2zpk when working with transfer functions expressed in inverse powers (1 + z–1 + z–2). A similar function, tf2zp, is more useful for working with positive powers (s2 + s + 1), such as in continuous-time transfer functions.

Examples

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Design a 3rd-order Butterworth filter with normalized cutoff frequency $0.4\pi$ rad/sample. Find the poles, zeros, and gain of the filter.

[b,a] = butter(3,.4);
[z,p,k] = tf2zpk(b,a)
z = 3×1 complex

-1.0000 + 0.0000i
-1.0000 - 0.0000i
-1.0000 + 0.0000i

p = 3×1 complex

0.2094 + 0.5582i
0.2094 - 0.5582i
0.1584 + 0.0000i

k = 0.0985

Plot the poles and zeros to verify that they are where expected.

fvtool(b,a,'polezero')
text(real(z)-0.1,imag(z)-0.1,'\bfZeros','color',[0 0.4 0])
text(real(p)-0.1,imag(p)-0.1,'\bfPoles','color',[0.6 0 0]) Input Arguments

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Transfer function numerator coefficients, specified as a vector or matrix. If b is a matrix, then each row of b corresponds to an output of the system. b contains the coefficients in descending powers of z. The number of columns of b must be equal to the length of a. If the numbers differ, make them equal by padding zeros. You can use the function eqtflength to accomplish this.

Data Types: single | double

Transfer function denominator coefficients, specified as a vector. a contains the coefficients in descending powers of z.

Data Types: single | double

Output Arguments

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Zeros of the system, returned as a matrix. z contains the numerator zeros in its columns. z has as many columns as there are outputs.

Poles of the system, returned as a column vector. p contains the pole locations of the denominator coefficients of the transfer function

Gains of the system, returned as a column vector. k contains the gains for each numerator transfer function.