transposedConv1dLayer
Transposed 1D convolution layer
Syntax
Description
A transposed 1D convolution layer upsamples onedimensional feature maps.
This layer is sometimes incorrectly known as a "deconvolution" or "deconv" layer. This layer is the transpose of convolution and does not perform deconvolution.
returns a 1D transposed convolution layer and sets the layer
= transposedConv1dLayer(filterSize
,numFilters
)FilterSize
and
NumFilters
properties.
returns a 1D transposed convolutional layer and specifies additional options using one or
more namevalue arguments.layer
= transposedConv1dLayer(filterSize
,numFilters
,Name=Value
)
Examples
Create 1D Transposed Convolutional Layer
Create a 1D transposed convolutional layer with 96 filters of length 11 and a stride of 4.
layer = transposedConv1dLayer(11,96,Stride=4)
layer = TransposedConvolution1DLayer with properties: Name: '' Hyperparameters FilterSize: 11 NumChannels: 'auto' NumFilters: 96 Stride: 4 CroppingMode: 'manual' CroppingSize: [0 0] Learnable Parameters Weights: [] Bias: [] Show all properties
Input Arguments
filterSize
— Length of filters
positive integer
Length of the filters, specified as a positive integer. The filter size defines the size of the local regions to which the neurons connect in the input.
Data Types: single
 double
 int8
 int16
 int32
 int64
 uint8
 uint16
 uint32
 uint64
numFilters
— Number of filters
positive integer
Number of filters, specified as a positive integer. This number corresponds to the number of neurons in the layer that connect to the same region in the input. This parameter determines the number of channels (feature maps) in the output of the layer.
Data Types: single
 double
 int8
 int16
 int32
 int64
 uint8
 uint16
 uint32
 uint64
NameValue Arguments
Specify optional pairs of arguments as
Name1=Value1,...,NameN=ValueN
, where Name
is
the argument name and Value
is the corresponding value.
Namevalue arguments must appear after other arguments, but the order of the
pairs does not matter.
Example: transposedConv1dLayer(11,96,Stride=4)
creates a 1D
transposed convolutional layer with 96 filters of length 11 and a stride of
4.
Stride
— Upsampling factor
1
(default)  positive integer
Upsampling factor of the input, specified as a positive integer that corresponds to the horizontal stride.
Data Types: single
 double
 int8
 int16
 int32
 int64
 uint8
 uint16
 uint32
 uint64
Cropping
— Output size reduction
0
(default)  "same"
 nonnegative integer  vector of two nonnegative integers
Output size reduction, specified as one of the following:
"same"
— Set the cropping so that the output size equalsinputSize.*Stride
, whereinputSize
is the length of the layer input. IfCropping
is"same"
, then the software automatically sets theCroppingMode
property of the layer to'same'
.The software trims an equal amount from the left and right, when possible. If the horizontal crop amount has an odd value, then the software trims an extra column from the right.
A positive integer — Crop the specified amount of data from the left and right edges.
A vector of nonnegative integers
[l r]
— Cropl
andr
from the left and right, respectively.
If you set the Cropping
option to a numeric
value, then the software automatically sets the CroppingMode
property of the layer to 'manual'
.
Data Types: single
 double
 int8
 int16
 int32
 int64
 uint8
 uint16
 uint32
 uint64
 char
 string
NumChannels
— Number of input channels
"auto"
(default)  positive integer
Number of input channels, specified as one of the following:
"auto"
— Automatically determine the number of input channels at training time.Positive integer — Configure the layer for the specified number of input channels.
NumChannels
and the number of channels in the layer input data must match. For example, if the input is an RGB image, thenNumChannels
must be 3. If the input is the output of a convolutional layer with 16 filters, thenNumChannels
must be 16.
Data Types: single
 double
 int8
 int16
 int32
 int64
 uint8
 uint16
 uint32
 uint64
 char
 string
WeightsInitializer
— Function to initialize weights
'glorot'
(default)  'he'
 'narrownormal'
 'zeros'
 'ones'
 function handle
Function to initialize the weights, specified as one of the following:
'glorot'
— Initialize the weights with the Glorot initializer [1] (also known as the Xavier initializer). The Glorot initializer independently samples from a uniform distribution with a mean of zero and a variance of2/(numIn + numOut)
, wherenumIn = FilterSize*NumChannels
andnumOut = FilterSize*NumFilters
.'he'
– Initialize the weights with the He initializer [2]. The He initializer samples from a normal distribution with a mean of zero and a variance of2/numIn
, wherenumIn = FilterSize*NumChannels
.'narrownormal'
— Initialize the weights by independently sampling from a normal distribution with a mean of zero and a standard deviation of 0.01.'zeros'
— Initialize the weights with zeros.'ones'
— Initialize the weights with ones.Function handle — Initialize the weights with a custom function. If you specify a function handle, then the function must be of the form
weights = func(sz)
, wheresz
is the size of the weights. For an example, see Specify Custom Weight Initialization Function.
The layer only initializes the weights when the Weights
property is empty.
Data Types: char
 string
 function_handle
BiasInitializer
— Function to initialize bias
'zeros'
(default)  'narrownormal'
 'ones'
 function handle
Function to initialize the bias, specified as one of the following:
'zeros'
— Initialize the bias with zeros.'ones'
— Initialize the bias with ones.'narrownormal'
— Initialize the bias by independently sampling from a normal distribution with a mean of zero and a standard deviation of 0.01.Function handle — Initialize the bias with a custom function. If you specify a function handle, then the function must be of the form
bias = func(sz)
, wheresz
is the size of the bias.
The layer only initializes the bias when the Bias
property is
empty.
Data Types: char
 string
 function_handle
Weights
— Layer weights
[]
(default)  numeric array
Layer weights for the transposed convolution operation, specified as a
FilterSize
byNumFilters
byNumChannels
numeric array or []
.
The layer weights are learnable parameters. You can specify the
initial value for the weights directly using the Weights
property of the layer. When you train a network, if the Weights
property of the layer is nonempty, then trainNetwork
uses the Weights
property as the
initial value. If the Weights
property is empty, then
trainNetwork
uses the initializer specified by the WeightsInitializer
property of the layer.
Data Types: single
 double
Bias
— Layer biases
[]
(default)  numeric array
Layer biases for the transposed convolutional operation, specified as a
1byNumFilters
numeric array or []
.
The layer biases are learnable parameters. When you train a
network, if Bias
is nonempty, then trainNetwork
uses the Bias
property as the
initial value. If Bias
is empty, then
trainNetwork
uses the initializer specified by BiasInitializer
.
Data Types: single
 double
WeightLearnRateFactor
— Learning rate factor for weights
1
(default)  nonnegative scalar
Learning rate factor for the weights, specified as a nonnegative scalar.
The software multiplies this factor by the global learning rate to determine the
learning rate for the weights in this layer. For example, if
WeightLearnRateFactor
is 2
, then the
learning rate for the weights in this layer is twice the current global learning rate.
The software determines the global learning rate based on the settings you specify using
the trainingOptions
function.
Data Types: single
 double
 int8
 int16
 int32
 int64
 uint8
 uint16
 uint32
 uint64
BiasLearnRateFactor
— Learning rate factor for biases
1
(default)  nonnegative scalar
Learning rate factor for the biases, specified as a nonnegative scalar.
The software multiplies this factor by the global learning rate
to determine the learning rate for the biases in this layer. For example, if
BiasLearnRateFactor
is 2
, then the learning rate for
the biases in the layer is twice the current global learning rate. The software determines the
global learning rate based on the settings you specify using the trainingOptions
function.
Data Types: single
 double
 int8
 int16
 int32
 int64
 uint8
 uint16
 uint32
 uint64
WeightL2Factor
— L_{2} regularization factor for weights
1 (default)  nonnegative scalar
L_{2} regularization factor for the weights, specified as a nonnegative scalar.
The software multiplies this factor by the global
L_{2} regularization factor to determine the
L_{2} regularization for the weights in
this layer. For example, if WeightL2Factor
is 2
,
then the L_{2} regularization for the weights in
this layer is twice the global L_{2}
regularization factor. You can specify the global
L_{2} regularization factor using the
trainingOptions
function.
Data Types: single
 double
 int8
 int16
 int32
 int64
 uint8
 uint16
 uint32
 uint64
BiasL2Factor
— L_{2} regularization factor for biases
0
(default)  nonnegative scalar
L_{2} regularization factor for the biases, specified as a nonnegative scalar.
The software multiplies this factor by the global
L_{2} regularization factor to determine the
L_{2} regularization for the biases in this
layer. For example, if BiasL2Factor
is 2
, then the
L_{2} regularization for the biases in this layer
is twice the global L_{2} regularization factor. You can
specify the global L_{2} regularization factor using the
trainingOptions
function.
Data Types: single
 double
 int8
 int16
 int32
 int64
 uint8
 uint16
 uint32
 uint64
Name
— Layer name
''
(default)  character vector  string scalar
Layer name, specified as a character vector or a string scalar.
For Layer
array input, the trainNetwork
,
assembleNetwork
, layerGraph
, and
dlnetwork
functions automatically assign names to layers with the name
''
.
Data Types: char
 string
Output Arguments
layer
— Transposed 1D convolution layer
TransposedConvolution1DLayer
object
Transposed 1D convolution layer, returned as a TransposedConvolution1DLayer
object.
Algorithms
1D Transposed Convolutional Layer
A transposed 1D convolution layer upsamples onedimensional feature maps.
The standard convolution operation downsamples the input by applying sliding convolutional filters to the input. By flattening the input and output, you can express the convolution operation as $$Y=CX+B$$ for the convolution matrix C and bias vector B that can be derived from the layer weights and biases.
Similarly, the transposed convolution operation upsamples the input by applying sliding convolutional filters to the input. To upsample the input instead of downsampling using sliding filters, the layer zeropads each edge of the input with padding that has the size of the corresponding filter edge size minus 1.
By flattening the input and output, the transposed convolution operation is equivalent to $$Y={C}^{\top}X+B$$, where C and B denote the convolution matrix and bias vector for standard convolution derived from the layer weights and biases, respectively. This operation is equivalent to the backward function of a standard convolution layer.
A 1D transposed convolution layer upsamples a single dimension only. The dimension that the layer upsamples depends on the layer input:
For time series and vector sequence input (data with three dimensions corresponding to the channels, observations, and time steps), the layer upsamples the time dimension.
For 1D image input (data with three dimensions corresponding to the spatial pixels, channels, and observations), the layer upsamples the spatial dimension.
For 1D image sequence input (data with four dimensions corresponding to the spatial pixels, channels, observations, and time steps), the layer upsamples the spatial dimension.
Layer Input and Output Formats
Layers in a layer array or layer graph pass data to subsequent layers as formatted
dlarray
objects. The format of a dlarray
object is a
string of characters, in which each character describes the corresponding dimension of the
data. The formats consists of one or more of these characters:
"S"
— Spatial"C"
— Channel"B"
— Batch"T"
— Time"U"
— Unspecified
For example, 2D image data represented as a 4D array, where the first two dimensions
correspond to the spatial dimensions of the images, the third dimension corresponds to the
channels of the images, and the fourth dimension corresponds to the batch dimension, can be
described as having the format "SSCB"
(spatial, spatial, channel,
batch).
You can interact with these dlarray
objects in automatic differentiation
workflows such as developing a custom layer, using a functionLayer
object,
or using the forward
and predict
functions with
dlnetwork
objects.
This table shows the supported input formats of
TransposedConvolution1DLayer
objects and the corresponding output format.
If the output of the layer is passed to a custom layer that does not inherit from the
nnet.layer.Formattable
class, or a FunctionLayer
object with the Formattable
option set to false
, then
the layer receives an unformatted dlarray
object with dimensions ordered
corresponding to the formats outlined in this table.
Input Format  Output Format 







References
[1] Glorot, Xavier, and Yoshua Bengio. "Understanding the Difficulty of Training Deep Feedforward Neural Networks." In Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics, 249–356. Sardinia, Italy: AISTATS, 2010.
[2] He, Kaiming, Xiangyu Zhang, Shaoqing Ren, and Jian Sun. "Delving Deep into Rectifiers: Surpassing HumanLevel Performance on ImageNet Classification." In Proceedings of the 2015 IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision, 1026–1034. Washington, DC: IEEE Computer Vision Society, 2015.
Version History
Introduced in R2022a
See Also
trainingOptions
 trainNetwork
 sequenceInputLayer
 lstmLayer
 bilstmLayer
 gruLayer
 maxPooling1dLayer
 averagePooling1dLayer
 globalMaxPooling1dLayer
 globalAveragePooling1dLayer
 convolution1dLayer
Topics
 Time Series Anomaly Detection Using Deep Learning
 Sequence Classification Using 1D Convolutions
 SequencetoSequence Classification Using 1D Convolutions
 Sequence Classification Using Deep Learning
 SequencetoSequence Classification Using Deep Learning
 SequencetoSequence Regression Using Deep Learning
 Time Series Forecasting Using Deep Learning
 Long ShortTerm Memory Networks
 List of Deep Learning Layers
 Deep Learning Tips and Tricks
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