# spectrogram

Spectrogram using short-time Fourier transform

## Syntax

## Description

returns the
Short-Time Fourier Transform
(STFT) of the input signal `s`

= spectrogram(`x`

)`x`

. Each column of
`s`

contains an estimate of the short-term,
time-localized frequency content of `x`

. The magnitude
squared of `s`

is known as the
*spectrogram* time-frequency representation of
`x`

[1].

`[___,`

also returns a matrix, `ps`

] = spectrogram(___,`spectrumtype`

)`ps`

, proportional to the spectrogram
of `x`

.

If you specify

`spectrumtype`

as`"psd"`

, each column of`ps`

contains an estimate of the power spectral density (PSD) of a windowed segment.If you specify

`spectrumtype`

as`"power"`

, each column of`ps`

contains an estimate of the power spectrum of a windowed segment.

`[___] = spectrogram(___,"reassigned")`

reassigns
each PSD or power spectrum estimate to the location of its center of energy. If
your signal contains well-localized temporal or spectral components, then this
option generates a sharper spectrogram.

`[___] = spectrogram(___,`

returns the PSD or power spectrum estimate over the frequency range specified by
`freqrange`

)`freqrange`

. Valid options for
`freqrange`

are `"onesided"`

,
`"twosided"`

, and `"centered"`

.

`[___] = spectrogram(___,`

specifies additional options using name-value arguments. Options include the
minimum threshold and output time dimension.`Name=Value`

)

## Examples

### Default Values of Spectrogram

Generate $${N}_{x}=1024$$ samples of a signal that consists of a sum of sinusoids. The normalized frequencies of the sinusoids are $$2\pi /5$$ rad/sample and $$4\pi /5$$ rad/sample. The higher frequency sinusoid has 10 times the amplitude of the other sinusoid.

N = 1024; n = 0:N-1; w0 = 2*pi/5; x = sin(w0*n)+10*sin(2*w0*n);

Compute the short-time Fourier transform using the function defaults. Plot the spectrogram.

```
s = spectrogram(x);
spectrogram(x,'yaxis')
```

Repeat the computation.

Divide the signal into sections of length $$nsc=\lfloor {N}_{x}/4.5\rfloor $$.

Window the sections using a Hamming window.

Specify 50% overlap between contiguous sections.

To compute the FFT, use $$\mathrm{max}(256,{2}^{p})$$ points, where $$p=\lceil {\mathrm{log}}_{2}nsc\rceil $$.

Verify that the two approaches give identical results.

Nx = length(x); nsc = floor(Nx/4.5); nov = floor(nsc/2); nff = max(256,2^nextpow2(nsc)); t = spectrogram(x,hamming(nsc),nov,nff); maxerr = max(abs(abs(t(:))-abs(s(:))))

maxerr = 0

Divide the signal into 8 sections of equal length, with 50% overlap between sections. Specify the same FFT length as in the preceding step. Compute the short-time Fourier transform and verify that it gives the same result as the previous two procedures.

ns = 8; ov = 0.5; lsc = floor(Nx/(ns-(ns-1)*ov)); t = spectrogram(x,lsc,floor(ov*lsc),nff); maxerr = max(abs(abs(t(:))-abs(s(:))))

maxerr = 0

### Compare `spectrogram`

Function and STFT Definition

Generate a signal that consists of a complex-valued convex quadratic chirp sampled at 600 Hz for 2 seconds. The chirp has an initial frequency of 250 Hz and a final frequency of 50 Hz.

fs = 6e2; ts = 0:1/fs:2; x = chirp(ts,250,ts(end),50,"quadratic",0,"convex","complex");

`spectrogram`

Function

Use the `spectrogram`

function to compute the STFT of the signal.

Divide the signal into segments, each $\mathit{M}=49$ samples long.

Specify $\mathit{L}=11$ samples of overlap between adjoining segments.

Discard the final, shorter segment.

Window each segment with a Bartlett window.

Evaluate the discrete Fourier transform of each segment at ${\mathit{N}}_{\mathrm{DFT}}=1024$ points. By default,

`spectrogram`

computes two-sided transforms for complex-valued signals.

M = 49; L = 11; g = bartlett(M); Ndft = 1024; [s,f,t] = spectrogram(x,g,L,Ndft,fs);

Use the `waterplot`

function to compute and display the spectrogram, defined as the magnitude squared of the STFT.

waterplot(s,f,t)

**STFT Definition**

Compute the STFT of the ${\mathit{N}}_{\mathit{x}}$-sample signal using the definition. Divide the signal into $$\lfloor \frac{{N}_{x}-L}{M-L}\rfloor $$ overlapping segments. Window each segment and evaluate its discrete Fourier transform at ${\mathit{N}}_{\mathrm{DFT}}$ points.

```
[segs,~] = buffer(1:length(x),M,L,"nodelay");
X = fft(x(segs).*g,Ndft);
```

Compute the time and frequency ranges for the STFT.

To find the time values, divide the time vector into overlapping segments. The time values are the midpoints of the segments, with each segment treated as an interval open at the lower end.

To find the frequency values, specify a Nyquist interval closed at zero frequency and open at the lower end.

tbuf = ts(segs); tint = mean(tbuf(2:end,:)); fint = 0:fs/Ndft:fs-fs/Ndft;

Compare the output of `spectrogram`

to the definition. Display the spectrogram.

maxdiff = max(max(abs(s-X)))

maxdiff = 0

waterplot(X,fint,tint)

function waterplot(s,f,t) % Waterfall plot of spectrogram waterfall(f,t,abs(s)'.^2) set(gca,XDir="reverse",View=[30 50]) xlabel("Frequency (Hz)") ylabel("Time (s)") end

### Compare `spectrogram`

and `stft`

Functions

Generate a signal consisting of a chirp sampled at 1.4 kHz for 2 seconds. The frequency of the chirp decreases linearly from 600 Hz to 100 Hz during the measurement time.

fs = 1400; x = chirp(0:1/fs:2,600,2,100);

`stft`

Defaults

Compute the STFT of the signal using the `spectrogram`

and `stft`

functions. Use the default values of the `stft`

function:

Divide the signal into 128-sample segments and window each segment with a periodic Hann window.

Specify 96 samples of overlap between adjoining segments. This length is equivalent to 75% of the window length.

Specify 128 DFT points and center the STFT at zero frequency, with the frequency expressed in hertz.

Verify that the two results are equal.

M = 128; g = hann(M,"periodic"); L = 0.75*M; Ndft = 128; [sp,fp,tp] = spectrogram(x,g,L,Ndft,fs,"centered"); [s,f,t] = stft(x,fs); dff = max(max(abs(sp-s)))

dff = 0

Use the `mesh`

function to plot the two outputs.

nexttile mesh(tp,fp,abs(sp).^2) title("spectrogram") view(2), axis tight nexttile mesh(t,f,abs(s).^2) title("stft") view(2), axis tight

`spectrogram`

Defaults

Repeat the computation using the default values of the `spectrogram`

function:

Divide the signal into segments of length $\mathit{M}=\lfloor {\mathit{N}}_{\mathit{x}}/4.5\rfloor $, where ${\mathit{N}}_{\mathit{x}}$ is the length of the signal. Window each segment with a Hamming window.

Specify 50% overlap between segments.

To compute the FFT, use $\mathrm{max}\left(256,{2}^{\lceil {\mathrm{log}}_{2}\mathit{M}\rceil}\right)$ points. Compute the spectrogram only for positive normalized frequencies.

M = floor(length(x)/4.5); g = hamming(M); L = floor(M/2); Ndft = max(256,2^nextpow2(M)); [sx,fx,tx] = spectrogram(x); [st,ft,tt] = stft(x,Window=g,OverlapLength=L, ... FFTLength=Ndft,FrequencyRange="onesided"); dff = max(max(sx-st))

dff = 0

Use the `waterplot`

function to plot the two outputs. Divide the frequency axis by $\pi $ in both cases. For the `stft`

output, divide the sample numbers by the effective sample rate, $2\pi $.

figure nexttile waterplot(sx,fx/pi,tx) title("spectrogram") nexttile waterplot(st,ft/pi,tt/(2*pi)) title("stft")

function waterplot(s,f,t) % Waterfall plot of spectrogram waterfall(f,t,abs(s)'.^2) set(gca,XDir="reverse",View=[30 50]) xlabel("Frequency/\pi") ylabel("Samples") end

### Spectrogram and Instantaneous Frequency

Use the `spectrogram`

function to measure and track the instantaneous frequency of a signal.

Generate a quadratic chirp sampled at 1 kHz for two seconds. Specify the chirp so that its frequency is initially 100 Hz and increases to 200 Hz after one second.

```
fs = 1000;
t = 0:1/fs:2-1/fs;
y = chirp(t,100,1,200,'quadratic');
```

Estimate the spectrum of the chirp using the short-time Fourier transform implemented in the `spectrogram`

function. Divide the signal into sections of length 100, windowed with a Hamming window. Specify 80 samples of overlap between adjoining sections and evaluate the spectrum at $$\lfloor 100/2+1\rfloor =51$$ frequencies.

`spectrogram(y,100,80,100,fs,'yaxis')`

Track the chirp frequency by finding the time-frequency ridge with highest energy across the $$\lfloor (2000-80)/(100-80)\rfloor =96$$ time points. Overlay the instantaneous frequency on the spectrogram plot.

[~,f,t,p] = spectrogram(y,100,80,100,fs); [fridge,~,lr] = tfridge(p,f); hold on plot3(t,fridge,abs(p(lr)),'LineWidth',4) hold off

### Spectrogram of Complex Signal

Generate 512 samples of a chirp with sinusoidally varying frequency content.

N = 512; n = 0:N-1; x = exp(1j*pi*sin(8*n/N)*32);

Compute the centered two-sided short-time Fourier transform of the chirp. Divide the signal into 32-sample segments with 16-sample overlap. Specify 64 DFT points. Plot the spectrogram.

[scalar,fs,ts] = spectrogram(x,32,16,64,'centered'); spectrogram(x,32,16,64,'centered','yaxis')

Obtain the same result by computing the spectrogram on 64 equispaced frequencies over the interval $(-\pi ,\pi ]$. The `'centered'`

option is not necessary.

```
fintv = -pi+pi/32:pi/32:pi;
[vector,fv,tv] = spectrogram(x,32,16,fintv);
spectrogram(x,32,16,fintv,'yaxis')
```

### Compare `spectrogram`

and `pspectrum`

Functions

Generate a signal that consists of a voltage-controlled oscillator and three Gaussian atoms. The signal is sampled at ${\mathit{f}}_{\mathit{s}}=2$ kHz for 2 seconds.

fs = 2000; tx = 0:1/fs:2; gaussFun = @(A,x,mu,f) exp(-(x-mu).^2/(2*0.03^2)).*sin(2*pi*f.*x)*A'; s = gaussFun([1 1 1],tx',[0.1 0.65 1],[2 6 2]*100)*1.5; x = vco(chirp(tx+.1,0,tx(end),3).*exp(-2*(tx-1).^2),[0.1 0.4]*fs,fs); x = s+x';

**Short-Time Fourier Transforms**

Use the `pspectrum`

function to compute the STFT.

Divide the ${\mathit{N}}_{\mathit{x}}$-sample signal into segments of length $\mathit{M}=80$ samples, corresponding to a time resolution of $80/2000=40$ milliseconds.

Specify $\mathit{L}=16$ samples or 20% of overlap between adjoining segments.

Window each segment with a Kaiser window and specify a leakage $\ell =0.7$.

M = 80; L = 16; lk = 0.7; [S,F,T] = pspectrum(x,fs,"spectrogram", ... TimeResolution=M/fs,OverlapPercent=L/M*100, ... Leakage=lk);

Compare to the result obtained with the `spectrogram`

function.

Specify the window length and overlap directly in samples.

`pspectrum`

always uses a Kaiser window as $\mathit{g}\left(\mathit{n}\right)$. The leakage $\ell $ and the shape factor $\beta $ of the window are related by $\beta =40\times \left(1-\ell \right)$.`pspectrum`

always uses ${\mathit{N}}_{\mathrm{DFT}}=1024$ points when computing the discrete Fourier transform. You can specify this number if you want to compute the transform over a two-sided or centered frequency range. However, for one-sided transforms, which are the default for real signals,`spectrogram`

uses $1024/2+1=513$ points. Alternatively, you can specify the vector of frequencies at which you want to compute the transform, as in this example.If a signal cannot be divided exactly into $\mathit{k}=\lfloor \frac{{\mathit{N}}_{\mathit{x}}-\mathit{L}}{\mathit{M}-\mathit{L}}\rfloor $ segments,

`spectrogram`

truncates the signal whereas`pspectrum`

pads the signal with zeros to create an extra segment. To make the outputs equivalent, remove the final segment and the final element of the time vector.`spectrogram`

returns the STFT, whose magnitude squared is the spectrogram.`pspectrum`

returns the segment-by-segment power spectrum, which is already squared but is divided by a factor of ${\sum}_{\mathit{n}}\mathit{g}\left(\mathit{n}\right)$ before squaring.For one-sided transforms,

`pspectrum`

adds an extra factor of 2 to the spectrogram.

g = kaiser(M,40*(1-lk)); k = (length(x)-L)/(M-L); if k~=floor(k) S = S(:,1:floor(k)); T = T(1:floor(k)); end [s,f,t] = spectrogram(x/sum(g)*sqrt(2),g,L,F,fs);

Use the `waterplot`

function to display the spectrograms computed by the two functions.

subplot(2,1,1) waterplot(sqrt(S),F,T) title("pspectrum") subplot(2,1,2) waterplot(s,f,t) title("spectrogram")

maxd = max(max(abs(abs(s).^2-S)))

maxd = 2.4419e-08

**Power Spectra and Convenience Plots**

The `spectrogram`

function has a fourth argument that corresponds to the segment-by-segment power spectrum or power spectral density. Similar to the output of `pspectrum`

, the `ps`

argument is already squared and includes the normalization factor ${\sum}_{\mathit{n}}\mathit{g}\left(\mathit{n}\right)$. For one-sided spectrograms of real signals, you still have to include the extra factor of 2. Set the scaling argument of the function to `"power"`

.

```
[~,~,~,ps] = spectrogram(x*sqrt(2),g,L,F,fs,"power");
max(abs(S(:)-ps(:)))
```

ans = 2.4419e-08

When called with no output arguments, both `pspectrum`

and `spectrogram`

plot the spectrogram of the signal in decibels. Include the factor of 2 for one-sided spectrograms. Set the colormaps to be the same for both plots. Set the *x*-limits to the same values to make visible the extra segment at the end of the `pspectrum`

plot. In the `spectrogram`

plot, display the frequency on the *y*-axis.

subplot(2,1,1) pspectrum(x,fs,"spectrogram", ... TimeResolution=M/fs,OverlapPercent=L/M*100, ... Leakage=lk) title("pspectrum") cc = clim; xl = xlim; subplot(2,1,2) spectrogram(x*sqrt(2),g,L,F,fs,"power","yaxis") title("spectrogram") clim(cc) xlim(xl)

function waterplot(s,f,t) % Waterfall plot of spectrogram waterfall(f,t,abs(s)'.^2) set(gca,XDir="reverse",View=[30 50]) xlabel("Frequency (Hz)") ylabel("Time (s)") end

### Reassigned Spectrogram of Quadratic Chirp

Generate a chirp signal sampled for 2 seconds at 1 kHz. Specify the chirp so that its frequency is initially 100 Hz and increases to 200 Hz after 1 second.

```
fs = 1000;
t = 0:1/fs:2;
y = chirp(t,100,1,200,"quadratic");
```

Estimate the reassigned spectrogram of the signal.

Divide the signal into sections of length 128, windowed with a Kaiser window with shape parameter $$\beta =18$$.

Specify 120 samples of overlap between adjoining sections.

Evaluate the spectrum at $$\lfloor 128/2\rfloor =65$$ frequencies and $$\lfloor (length(x)-120)/(128-120)\rfloor =235$$ time bins.

Use the `spectrogram`

function with no output arguments to plot the reassigned spectrogram. Display frequency on the *y*-axis and time on the *x*-axis.

spectrogram(y,kaiser(128,18),120,128,fs, ... "reassigned","yaxis")

Redo the plot using the `imagesc`

function. Specify the *y*-axis direction so that the frequency values increase from bottom to top. Add `eps`

to the reassigned spectrogram to avoid potential negative infinities when converting to decibels.

[~,fr,tr,pxx] = spectrogram(y,kaiser(128,18),120,128,fs, ... "reassigned"); imagesc(tr,fr,pow2db(pxx+eps)) axis xy xlabel("Time (s)") ylabel("Frequency (Hz)") colorbar

### Spectrogram with Threshold

Generate a chirp signal sampled for 2 seconds at 1 kHz. Specify the chirp so that its frequency is initially 100 Hz and increases to 200 Hz after 1 second.

```
Fs = 1000;
t = 0:1/Fs:2;
y = chirp(t,100,1,200,'quadratic');
```

Estimate the time-dependent power spectral density (PSD) of the signal.

Divide the signal into sections of length 128, windowed with a Kaiser window with shape parameter $$\beta =18$$.

Specify 120 samples of overlap between adjoining sections.

Evaluate the spectrum at $$\lfloor 128/2\rfloor =65$$ frequencies and $$\lfloor (length(x)-120)/(128-120)\rfloor =235$$ time bins.

Output the frequency and time of the center of gravity of each PSD estimate. Set to zero those elements of the PSD smaller than $$-30$$ dB.

[~,~,~,pxx,fc,tc] = spectrogram(y,kaiser(128,18),120,128,Fs, ... 'MinThreshold',-30);

Plot the nonzero elements as functions of the center-of-gravity frequencies and times.

`plot(tc(pxx>0),fc(pxx>0),'.')`

### Compute Centered and One-Sided Spectrograms

Generate a signal that consists of a real-valued chirp sampled at 2 kHz for 2 seconds.

```
fs = 2000;
tx = 0:1/fs:2;
x = vco(-chirp(tx,0,tx(end),2).*exp(-3*(tx-1).^2), ...
[0.1 0.4]*fs,fs).*hann(length(tx))';
```

**Two-Sided Spectrogram**

Compute and plot the two-sided STFT of the signal.

Divide the signal into segments, each $\mathit{M}=73$ samples long.

Specify $\mathit{L}=24$ samples of overlap between adjoining segments.

Discard the final, shorter segment.

Window each segment with a flat-top window.

Evaluate the discrete Fourier transform of each segment at ${\mathit{N}}_{\mathrm{DFT}}=895$ points, noting that it is an odd number.

```
M = 73;
L = 24;
g = flattopwin(M);
Ndft = 895;
neven = ~mod(Ndft,2);
[stwo,f,t] = spectrogram(x,g,L,Ndft,fs,"twosided");
```

Use the `spectrogram`

function with no output arguments to plot the two-sided spectrogram.

spectrogram(x,g,L,Ndft,fs,"twosided","power","yaxis");

Compute the two-sided spectrogram using the definition. Divide the signal into $\mathit{M}$-sample segments with $\mathit{L}$ samples of overlap between adjoining segments. Window each segment and compute its discrete Fourier transform at ${\mathit{N}}_{\mathrm{DFT}}$ points.

```
[segs,~] = buffer(1:length(x),M,L,"nodelay");
Xtwo = fft(x(segs).*g,Ndft);
```

Compute the time and frequency ranges.

To find the time values, divide the time vector into overlapping segments. The time values are the midpoints of the segments, with each segment treated as an interval open at the lower end.

To find the frequency values, specify a Nyquist interval closed at zero frequency and open at the upper end.

tbuf = tx(segs); ttwo = mean(tbuf(2:end,:)); ftwo = 0:fs/Ndft:fs*(1-1/Ndft);

Compare the outputs of `spectrogram`

to the definitions. Use the `waterplot`

function to display the spectrograms.

diffs = [max(max(abs(stwo-Xtwo))) max(abs(f-ftwo')) max(abs(t-ttwo))]

diffs =1×310^{-12}× 0 0.2274 0.0002

figure nexttile waterplot(Xtwo,ftwo,ttwo) title("Two-Sided, Definition") nexttile waterplot(stwo,f,t) title("Two-Sided, spectrogram Function")

**Centered Spectrogram**

Compute the centered spectrogram of the signal.

Use the same time values that you used for the two-sided STFT.

Use the

`fftshift`

function to shift the zero-frequency component of the STFT to the center of the spectrum.For odd-valued ${\mathit{N}}_{\mathrm{DFT}}$, the frequency interval is open at both ends. For even-valued ${\mathit{N}}_{\mathrm{DFT}}$, the frequency interval is open at the lower end and closed at the upper end.

Compare the outputs and display the spectrograms.

tcen = ttwo; if ~neven Xcen = fftshift(Xtwo,1); fcen = -fs/2*(1-1/Ndft):fs/Ndft:fs/2; else Xcen = fftshift(circshift(Xtwo,-1),1); fcen = (-fs/2*(1-1/Ndft):fs/Ndft:fs/2)+fs/Ndft/2; end [scen,f,t] = spectrogram(x,g,L,Ndft,fs,"centered"); diffs = [max(max(abs(scen-Xcen))) max(abs(f-fcen')) max(abs(t-tcen))]

diffs =1×310^{-12}× 0 0.2274 0.0002

figure nexttile waterplot(Xcen,fcen,tcen) title("Centered, Definition") nexttile waterplot(scen,f,t) title("Centered, spectrogram Function")

**One-Sided Spectrogram**

Compute the one-sided spectrogram of the signal.

Use the same time values that you used for the two-sided STFT.

For odd-valued ${\mathit{N}}_{\mathrm{DFT}}$, the one-sided STFT consists of the first $\left({\mathit{N}}_{\mathrm{DFT}}+1\right)/2$ rows of the two-sided STFT. For even-valued ${\mathit{N}}_{\mathrm{DFT}}$, the one-sided STFT consists of the first ${\mathit{N}}_{\mathrm{DFT}}/2+1$ rows of the two-sided STFT.

For odd-valued ${\mathit{N}}_{\mathrm{DFT}}$, the frequency interval is closed at zero frequency and open at the Nyquist frequency. For even-valued ${\mathit{N}}_{\mathrm{DFT}}$, the frequency interval is closed at both ends.

Compare the outputs and display the spectrograms. For real-valued signals, the `"onesided"`

argument is optional.

tone = ttwo; if ~neven Xone = Xtwo(1:(Ndft+1)/2,:); else Xone = Xtwo(1:Ndft/2+1,:); end fone = 0:fs/Ndft:fs/2; [sone,f,t] = spectrogram(x,g,L,Ndft,fs); diffs = [max(max(abs(sone-Xone))) max(abs(f-fone')) max(abs(t-tone))]

diffs =1×310^{-12}× 0 0.1137 0.0002

figure nexttile waterplot(Xone,fone,tone) title("One-Sided, Definition") nexttile waterplot(sone,f,t) title("One-Sided, spectrogram Function")

function waterplot(s,f,t) % Waterfall plot of spectrogram waterfall(f,t,abs(s)'.^2) set(gca,XDir="reverse",View=[30 50]) xlabel("Frequency (Hz)") ylabel("Time (s)") end

### Compute Segment PSDs and Power Spectra

The `spectrogram`

function has a matrix containing either the power spectral density (PSD) or the power spectrum of each segment as the fourth output argument. The power spectrum is equal to the PSD multiplied by the equivalent noise bandwidth (ENBW) of the window.

Generate a signal that consists of a logarithmic chirp sampled at 1 kHz for 1 second. The chirp has an initial frequency of 400 Hz that decreases to 10 Hz by the end of the measurement.

```
fs = 1000;
tt = 0:1/fs:1-1/fs;
y = chirp(tt,400,tt(end),10,"logarithmic");
```

**Segment PSDs and Power Spectra with Sample Rate**

Divide the signal into 102-sample segments and window each segment with a Hann window. Specify 12 samples of overlap between adjoining segments and 1024 DFT points.

M = 102; g = hann(M); L = 12; Ndft = 1024;

Compute the spectrogram of the signal with the default PSD spectrum type. Output the STFT and the array of segment power spectral densities.

[s,f,t,p] = spectrogram(y,g,L,Ndft,fs);

Repeat the computation with the spectrum type specified as `"power"`

. Output the STFT and the array of segment power spectra.

`[r,~,~,q] = spectrogram(y,g,L,Ndft,fs,"power");`

Verify that the spectrogram is the same in both cases. Plot the spectrogram using a logarithmic scale for the frequency.

max(max(abs(s).^2-abs(r).^2))

ans = 0

waterfall(f,t,abs(s)'.^2) set(gca,XScale="log",... XDir="reverse",View=[30 50])

Verify that the power spectra are equal to the power spectral densities multiplied by the ENBW of the window.

max(max(abs(q-p*enbw(g,fs))))

ans = 1.1102e-16

Verify that the matrix of segment power spectra is proportional to the spectrogram. The proportionality factor is the square of the sum of the window elements.

max(max(abs(s).^2-q*sum(g)^2))

ans = 3.4694e-18

**Segment PSDs and Power Spectra with Normalized Frequencies**

Repeat the computation, but now work in normalized frequencies. The results are the same when you specify the sample rate as $2\pi $.

```
[~,~,~,pn] = spectrogram(y,g,L,Ndft);
[~,~,~,qn] = spectrogram(y,g,L,Ndft,"power");
max(max(abs(qn-pn*enbw(g,2*pi))))
```

ans = 1.1102e-16

### Track Chirps in Audio Signal

Load an audio signal that contains two decreasing chirps and a wideband splatter sound. Compute the short-time Fourier transform. Divide the waveform into 400-sample segments with 300-sample overlap. Plot the spectrogram.

load splat % To hear, type soundsc(y,Fs) sg = 400; ov = 300; spectrogram(y,sg,ov,[],Fs,"yaxis") colormap bone

Use the `spectrogram`

function to output the power spectral density (PSD) of the signal.

[s,f,t,p] = spectrogram(y,sg,ov,[],Fs);

Track the two chirps using the `medfreq`

function. To find the stronger, low-frequency chirp, restrict the search to frequencies above 100 Hz and to times before the start of the wideband sound.

f1 = f > 100; t1 = t < 0.75; m1 = medfreq(p(f1,t1),f(f1));

To find the faint high-frequency chirp, restrict the search to frequencies above 2500 Hz and to times between 0.3 seconds and 0.65 seconds.

f2 = f > 2500; t2 = t > 0.3 & t < 0.65; m2 = medfreq(p(f2,t2),f(f2));

Overlay the result on the spectrogram. Divide the frequency values by 1000 to express them in kHz.

hold on plot(t(t1),m1/1000,LineWidth=4) plot(t(t2),m2/1000,LineWidth=4) hold off

### 3D Spectrogram Visualization

Generate two seconds of a signal sampled at 10 kHz. Specify the instantaneous frequency of the signal as a triangular function of time.

fs = 10e3; t = 0:1/fs:2; x1 = vco(sawtooth(2*pi*t,0.5),[0.1 0.4]*fs,fs);

Compute and plot the spectrogram of the signal. Use a Kaiser window of length 256 and shape parameter $$\beta =5$$. Specify 220 samples of section-to-section overlap and 512 DFT points. Plot the frequency on the *y*-axis. Use the default colormap and view.

`spectrogram(x1,kaiser(256,5),220,512,fs,'yaxis')`

Change the view to display the spectrogram as a waterfall plot. Set the colormap to `bone`

.

```
view(-45,65)
colormap bone
```

## Input Arguments

`x`

— Input signal

vector

Input signal, specified as a row or column vector.

**Example: **`cos(pi/4*(0:159))+randn(1,160)`

specifies a
sinusoid embedded in white Gaussian noise.

**Data Types: **`single`

| `double`

**Complex Number Support: **Yes

`window`

— Window

integer | vector | `[]`

Window, specified as an integer or as a row or column vector. Use
`window`

to divide the signal into segments:

If

`window`

is an integer, then`spectrogram`

divides`x`

into segments of length`window`

and windows each segment with a Hamming window of that length.If

`window`

is a vector, then`spectrogram`

divides`x`

into segments of the same length as the vector and windows each segment using`window`

.

If the length of `x`

cannot be divided
exactly into an integer number of segments with
`noverlap`

overlapping samples, then
`x`

is truncated accordingly.

If you specify `window`

as empty, then
`spectrogram`

uses a Hamming window such that
`x`

is divided into eight segments with
`noverlap`

overlapping samples.

For a list of available windows, see Windows.

**Example: **`hann(N+1)`

and
`(1-cos(2*pi*(0:N)'/N))/2`

both specify a Hann window
of length `N`

+ 1.

`noverlap`

— Number of overlapped samples

positive integer | `[]`

Number of overlapped samples, specified as a positive integer.

If

`window`

is scalar, then`noverlap`

must be smaller than`window`

.If

`window`

is a vector, then`noverlap`

must be smaller than the length of`window`

.

If you specify `noverlap`

as empty, then
`spectrogram`

uses a number that produces 50% overlap
between segments. If the segment length is unspecified, the function sets
`noverlap`

to ⌊*N _{x}*/4.5⌋, where

*N*is the length of the input signal and the ⌊⌋ symbols denote the floor function.

_{x}`nfft`

— Number of DFT points

positive integer scalar | `[]`

Number of DFT points, specified as a positive integer scalar. If you
specify `nfft`

as empty, then
`spectrogram`

sets the parameter to max(256,2^{p}), where *p* = ⌈log_{2} *N _{w}*⌉, the ⌈⌉ symbols denote the ceiling function, and

*N*=_{w}`window`

if`window`

is a scalar.*N*=_{w}`length(`

if`window`

)`window`

is a vector.

`w`

— Normalized frequencies

vector

Normalized frequencies, specified as a vector. `w`

must
have at least two elements, because otherwise the function interprets it as
`nfft`

. Normalized frequencies are in
rad/sample.

**Example: **`pi./[2 4]`

`fs`

— Sample rate

1 Hz (default) | positive scalar

Sample rate, specified as a positive scalar. The sample rate is the number of samples per unit time. If the unit of time is seconds, then the sample rate is in Hz.

`freqrange`

— Frequency range for PSD estimate

`"onesided"`

| `"twosided"`

| `"centered"`

Frequency range for the PSD estimate, specified as
`"onesided"`

, `"twosided"`

, or
`"centered"`

. For real-valued signals, the default is
`"onesided"`

. For complex-valued signals, the default
is `"twosided"`

, and specifying
`"onesided"`

results in an error.

`"onesided"`

— returns the one-sided spectrogram of a real input signal. If`nfft`

is even, then`ps`

has`nfft`

/2 + 1 rows and is computed over the interval [0,*π*] rad/sample. If`nfft`

is odd, then`ps`

has (`nfft`

+ 1)/2 rows and the interval is [0,*π*) rad/sample. If you specify`fs`

, then the intervals are respectively [0,`fs`

/2] cycles/unit time and [0,`fs`

/2) cycles/unit time.`"twosided"`

— returns the two-sided spectrogram of a real or complex-valued signal.`ps`

has`nfft`

rows and is computed over the interval [0, 2*π*) rad/sample. If you specify`fs`

, then the interval is [0,`fs`

) cycles/unit time.`"centered"`

— returns the centered two-sided spectrogram of a real or complex-valued signal.`ps`

has`nfft`

rows. If`nfft`

is even, then`ps`

is computed over the interval (–*π*,*π*] rad/sample. If`nfft`

is odd, then`ps`

is computed over (–*π*,*π*) rad/sample. If you specify`fs`

, then the intervals are respectively (–`fs`

/2,`fs`

/2] cycles/unit time and (–`fs`

/2,`fs`

/2) cycles/unit time.

`spectrumtype`

— Power spectrum scaling

`"psd"`

(default) | `"power"`

Power spectrum scaling, specified as `"psd"`

or
`"power"`

.

Omitting

`spectrumtype`

, or specifying`"psd"`

, returns the power spectral density.Specifying

`"power"`

scales each estimate of the PSD by the equivalent noise bandwidth of the window. The result is an estimate of the power at each frequency. If the`"reassigned"`

option is on, the function integrates the PSD over the width of each frequency bin before reassigning.

`freqloc`

— Frequency display axis

`"xaxis"`

(default) | `"yaxis"`

Frequency display axis, specified as `"xaxis"`

or
`"yaxis"`

.

`"xaxis"`

— displays frequency on the*x*-axis and time on the*y*-axis.`"yaxis"`

— displays frequency on the*y*-axis and time on the*x*-axis.

This argument is ignored if you call
`spectrogram`

with output arguments.

### Name-Value Arguments

Specify optional pairs of arguments as
`Name1=Value1,...,NameN=ValueN`

, where `Name`

is
the argument name and `Value`

is the corresponding value.
Name-value arguments must appear after other arguments, but the order of the
pairs does not matter.

**Example: **`spectrogram(x,100,OutputTimeDimension="downrows")`

divides `x`

into segments of length 100 and windows each segment
with a Hamming window of that length The output of the spectrogram has time
dimension down the rows.

*
Before R2021a, use commas to separate each name and value, and enclose*
`Name`

*in quotes.*

**Example: **`spectrogram(x,100,'OutputTimeDimension','downrows')`

divides `x`

into segments of length 100 and windows each segment
with a Hamming window of that length The output of the spectrogram has time
dimension down the rows.

`MinThreshold`

— Threshold

`-Inf`

(default) | real scalar

Threshold, specified as a real scalar expressed in decibels.
`spectrogram`

sets to zero those elements of
`s`

such that
10 log_{10}(`s`

) ≤ `thresh`

.

`OutputTimeDimension`

— Output time dimension

`"acrosscolumns"`

(default) | `"downrows"`

Output time dimension, specified as `"acrosscolumns"`

or `"downrows"`

. Set this value to
`"downrows"`

, if you want the time dimension of
`s`

, `ps`

,
`fc`

, and `tc`

down the rows
and the frequency dimension along the columns. Set this value to
`"acrosscolumns"`

, if you want the time dimension
of `s`

, `ps`

,
`fc`

, and `tc`

across the
columns and frequency dimension along the rows. This input is ignored if
the function is called without output arguments.

## Output Arguments

`s`

— Short-time Fourier transform

matrix

Short-time Fourier transform, returned as a matrix. Time increases across
the columns of `s`

and frequency increases down the rows,
starting from zero.

**Note**

When `freqrange`

is set to
`"onesided"`

, `spectrogram`

outputs the `s`

values in the positive Nyquist
range and does not conserve the total power.

`s`

is not affected by the
`"reassigned"`

option.

`t`

— Time instants

vector

Time instants, returned as a vector. The time values in
`t`

correspond to the midpoint of each
segment.

`ps`

— Power spectral density or power spectrum

matrix

Power spectral density (PSD) or power spectrum, returned as a matrix.

If

`x`

is real and`freqrange`

is left unspecified or set to`"onesided"`

, then`ps`

contains the one-sided modified periodogram estimate of the PSD or power spectrum of each segment. The function multiplies the power by 2 at all frequencies except 0 and the Nyquist frequency to conserve the total power.If

`x`

is complex-valued or if`freqrange`

is set to`"twosided"`

or`"centered"`

, then`ps`

contains the two-sided modified periodogram estimate of the PSD or power spectrum of each segment.If you specify a vector of normalized frequencies in

`w`

or a vector of cyclical frequencies in`f`

, then`ps`

contains the modified periodogram estimate of the PSD or power spectrum of each segment evaluated at the input frequencies.

`fc`

, `tc`

— Center-of-energy frequencies and times

matrices

Center-of-energy frequencies and times, returned as matrices of the same
size as the short-time Fourier transform. If you do not specify a sample
rate, then the elements of `fc`

are returned as normalized
frequencies.

## More About

### Short-Time Fourier Transform

The short-time Fourier transform (STFT) is used to analyze how the frequency
content of a nonstationary signal changes over time. The magnitude squared of the STFT is
known as the *spectrogram* time-frequency representation of the signal.
For more information about the spectrogram and how to compute it using Signal Processing Toolbox™ functions, see Spectrogram Computation with Signal Processing Toolbox.

The STFT of a signal is computed by sliding an *analysis window*
*g*(*n*) of length *M* over the signal and calculating the
discrete Fourier transform (DFT) of each segment of windowed data. The window hops over the
original signal at intervals of *R* samples, equivalent to *L* = *M* –
*R* samples of overlap between adjoining segments. Most window functions taper
off at the edges to avoid spectral ringing. The DFT of each windowed segment is added to a
complex-valued matrix that contains the magnitude and phase for each point in time and
frequency. The STFT matrix has

$$k=\lfloor \frac{{N}_{x}-L}{M-L}\rfloor $$

columns, where *N _{x}* is the length
of the signal

*x*(

*n*) and the ⌊⌋ symbols denote the floor function. The number of rows in the matrix equals

*N*

_{DFT}, the number of DFT points, for centered and two-sided transforms and an odd number close to

*N*

_{DFT}/2 for one-sided transforms of real-valued signals.

The *m*th column of the STFT matrix $$X(f)=\left[\begin{array}{ccccc}{X}_{1}(f)& {X}_{2}(f)& {X}_{3}(f)& \cdots & {X}_{k}(f)\end{array}\right]$$ contains the DFT of the windowed data centered about time *mR*:

$${X}_{m}(f)={\displaystyle \sum _{n=-\infty}^{\infty}x(n)\text{\hspace{0.17em}}g(n-mR)\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{e}^{-j2\pi fn}}.$$

The short-time Fourier transform is invertible. The inversion process overlap-adds the windowed segments to compensate for the signal attenuation at the window edges. For more information, see Inverse Short-Time Fourier Transform.

The

`istft`

function inverts the STFT of a signal.Under a specific set of circumstances it is possible to achieve "perfect reconstruction" of a signal. For more information, see Perfect Reconstruction.

The

`stftmag2sig`

returns an estimate of a signal reconstructed from the magnitude of its STFT.

## Tips

If a short-time Fourier transform has zeros, its conversion
to decibels results in negative infinities that cannot be plotted.
To avoid this potential difficulty, `spectrogram`

adds `eps`

to
the short-time Fourier transform when you call it with no output arguments.

## References

[1] Boashash, Boualem, ed.
*Time Frequency Signal Analysis and Processing: A Comprehensive
Reference*. Second edition. EURASIP and Academic Press Series in Signal
and Image Processing. Amsterdam and Boston: Academic Press, 2016.

[2] Chassande-Motin, Éric,
François Auger, and Patrick Flandrin. "Reassignment." In *Time-Frequency
Analysis: Concepts and Methods*. Edited by Franz Hlawatsch and François
Auger. London: ISTE/John Wiley and Sons, 2008.

[3] Fulop, Sean A., and Kelly
Fitz. "Algorithms for computing the time-corrected instantaneous frequency (reassigned)
spectrogram, with applications." *Journal of the Acoustical Society of
America*. Vol. 119, January 2006, pp. 360–371.

[4] Oppenheim, Alan V., and Ronald W. Schafer, with John R. Buck. *Discrete-Time
Signal Processing*. Second edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice
Hall, 1999.

[5] Rabiner, Lawrence R., and Ronald W. Schafer. *Digital
Processing of Speech Signals*. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall,
1978.

## Extended Capabilities

### Tall Arrays

Calculate with arrays that have more rows than fit in memory.

Usage notes and limitations:

Input must be a tall column vector.

The

`window`

argument must always be specified.`OutputTimeDimension`

must be always specified and set to`"downrows"`

.The

`reassigned`

option is not supported.Syntaxes with no output arguments are not supported.

For more information, see Tall Arrays.

### C/C++ Code Generation

Generate C and C++ code using MATLAB® Coder™.

Usage notes and limitations:

Arguments specified using name-value arguments must be compile-time constants.

Variable sized

`window`

must be double precision.

### Thread-Based Environment

Run code in the background using MATLAB® `backgroundPool`

or accelerate code with Parallel Computing Toolbox™ `ThreadPool`

.

Usage notes and limitations:

The syntax with no output arguments is not supported.

The frequency vector must be uniformly spaced.

For more information, see Run MATLAB Functions in Thread-Based Environment.

### GPU Arrays

Accelerate code by running on a graphics processing unit (GPU) using Parallel Computing Toolbox™.

This function fully supports GPU arrays. For more information, see Run MATLAB Functions on a GPU (Parallel Computing Toolbox).

## Version History

**Introduced before R2006a**

### R2023a: Visualize function outputs using **Create Plot**
Live Editor task

You can now use the **Create
Plot** Live Editor task to visualize the output of
`spectrogram`

interactively. You can select different chart
types and set optional parameters. The task also automatically generates code that
becomes part of your live script.

## See Also

### Apps

### Functions

`goertzel`

|`istft`

|`periodogram`

|`pspectrum`

|`pwelch`

|`stft`

|`xspectrogram`

### Topics

### External Websites

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